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The "Second Coalition" (1799–1802) was the second attempt by European power led by Austria and Russia to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. While Napoleon Bonaparte was leading an expedition to Egypt, a number of France's enemies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back his previous conquests. Austria and Russia raised fresh armies for campaigns in Germany and Italy in 1799.

The only military activity before the end of 1798 was in Italy, where Naples captured Rome on 28 October but was driven out by the end of the year.

In Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valleymarker, and forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoamarker. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic (Switzerland) were defeated by André Masséna, and Suvorov's army was eventually withdrawn for political reasons.

In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, and won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena.

Russia left the coalition because the British insisted that they would have the right to search any vessel on the sea.

By the end of the year, Napoleon had returned from Egypt, leaving his army behind, and took control of France in a coup d'état. He reorganized the French armies and command for the next year's campaign.

In 1800, Napoleon took personal command of the army in Italy, and eventually won a victory at the Battle of Marengo against the Austrian general Michael Melas, driving the Austrians back toward the Alps.

In Germany, General Moreau defeated Archduke Johann at the Battle of Hohenlinden, forcing him to sign an armistice.

In February 1801 the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhinemarker and the French client republics in Italy and the Netherlands.

The Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the war between the two during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods.

See also

French Revolutionary Wars:

Notes




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