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Warangal or Orugallu or Ekasila Nagaram ( ) (part of Telangana region) is a city and a municipal corporation in Warangal districtmarker in the Indianmarker state of Andhra Pradeshmarker. Warangal is 145 km northeast of the state capital of Hyderabadmarker. Warangal is the administrative seat of Warangal District. It is the fourth largest city in Andhra Pradesh with a population of nearly 13,562,98 (2001 census) which includes Hanamkonda and Kazipet.

Warangal district has an area of 12,846 km2, and a population of 2,818,832 (1991 census). The district is bounded by Karimnagar districtmarker to the north, Khammam districtmarker to the east and southeast, Nalgonda district to the southwest, and Medak district to the west. Warangal is located northeast of Hyderabad,Indiamarker. Warangal is known for its granite quarries (notably the black and brown varieties), grain market (for rice and chillies), cotton, and tobacco.

History

Warangal was the capital of a Hindu Shaivaite kingdom ruled by the Kakatiya dynasty from the 12th to the 14th centuries.The old name of this newly formed city is Orugallu. 'Oru' means one and 'Kallu' means stone. The entire city was carved in a single rock, hence the name Orukallu meaning 'one rock'. The city was also called Ekasila nagaram. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, and the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by the famous traveller Marco Polo. Famous or well-known rulers included Ganapathi Deva, Prathapa Rudra, and Rani (queen) Rudramma Devi. After the defeat of PratapaRudra, the Musunuri Nayaks united seventy two Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhimarker sultanate and ruled for fifty years. Jealousy and mutual rivalry between Nayaks ultimately led to the downfall of Hindus in 1370 A.D. and success of Bahmanis. Bahmani Sultanate later broke up into several smaller sultanates, of which the Golconda sultanate ruled Warangal. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, and it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724 which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, and became an Indian state. In 1956 Hyderabad was partitioned as part of the States Reorganization Act, and Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state which includes Warangal, became part of Andhra Pradesh.

Warangal has developed both under the political and historical influences of successive great kings. The Historical events and development occurred in Warangal District. These are:-

1. Kakatiya Stage 1260 - 1422

2. Transition Stage 1422 - 1725

3. Asaf Jahi Stage 1725 - 1948

4. Modern Stage 1948 - Onwards.

Geography

Warangal is located at . It has an average elevation of 302 metres (990 feet).

Climate

Located in the semi-arid Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, Warangal has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February. With little humidity and average temperatures in the range, this is the best time to visit Warangal.

Economy

Warangal's economy is predominantly agricultural. It has a large grain market in Enamamula. This is a rice-growing region and most farmers grow rice for both subsistence and the commerce. Cotton has also been a major cash crop since the early 1990s; however the cotton sector has been troubled in recent years, and there was a highly publicized spate of suicides by cotton farmers in 1997-1998.

Industry has been neglected in the region by successive governments. Some industries existing during the Nizam's rule, like Azam Jahi Cloth Mills, closed down; Warangal has several small to medium scale industries but no large scale ones.

A STPI (Software Technology Parks of India) has been set up at National Institute of Technology, Warangal with the intention of taking the benefits of the Information Technology revolution to second tier cities. Warangal makes an excellent location for this because of its proximity to Hyderabad, the student pool from some of the best institutes in the country, good transportation facilities, infrastructure, lower traffic problems, etc.

Governance

Warangal city is the headquarters of Warangal district. Warangal district contributes a total of twelve seats (city has two; that of Warangal East and Warangal West) in the lower house of the State Legislature and two seats (Warangal and Mahabubabad) in lower house of Indian Parliament.

Politics

Warangal witnessed a bloody chapter in its history in 1969, called the Mulki (locals) agitation. In 1969, the people of Telangana raised their voice asking for a separate state. They felt discriminated in the unified state of Andhra Pradesh and wanted to reverse the unification and exist separately as was the case before 1956. Warangal was the brewing ground of the movement and lead it from the front. Students, peasants and government employees all joined forces. More than 400 students lost their lives in the struggle.

In the early 2000s the movement for a separate Telangana was again started under the leadership of K. Chandrasekhar Rao who established the political party Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS). The party allied with the Indira Congress in the state elections. The alliance won majority, and Chandrasekhar Rao became a Union Minister. In 2006, as the Congress party was against separationism, Chandrasekhar Rao resigned his ministry and his Membership of the Parliament. He contested again in the resulting by-election and won the elections in first by-election with over hundred thousend votes and second time with over twenty thousand votes.

Transport

Warangal Railway Station
*Air :There is an airstrip at Mamnoor on the south-eastern outskirts of Warangal. It was earlier used as a make shift air force base. The nearest international airport is located at Shamshabad 160 km away, near Hyderabad.

*Rail : Warangal is well connected to all the major cities in India by rail. Kazipetmarker (KZP) about 13 km from Warangal is a major railway junction on the Bangalore/Hyderabad-New Delhi route while Warangal is a major station on the Hyderabad/New Delhi-Chennai route. Aptly, Warangal is called the gateway to north India. Daily nearly 132 trains passing section including two Rajadhani exps.

*Road : There are two major bus stations (hubs); Warangal and Hanamakonda. Long-distance deluxe buses ply from Warangal to Bangaloremarker, Madrasmarker, Hyderabadmarker, Tirupathi, Anantapurmarker, and Hublimarker [belgam]; and standard express buses to Gunturmarker via Vijaywadamarker, Cherial, Jangaonmarker, Kodad, Karimnagarmarker, Nizamabad, Adilabad, Suryapet, Palampet, Jagtial, Narasampet, Parkal, Khammam, Bhadrachalam, Basara, etc. From Hyderabad there are buses available every fifteen minutes to Warangal directly or as Via Station. To travel to Warangal by bus from Hyderabad, you can board buses to Hanumakonda, Warangal, Narsampet, Mulugu, Illandu, etc.

Demographics

 India census, Warangal had a population of 1,128,570. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Warangal has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 64%. In Warangal, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Culture

Telugu is the language spoken by the majority in Warangal. Both traditional attire like Saree, Lungi and Dhoti and modern dress styles are worn. The poets of this place include the ancient poets Potana and Palkuriki Somanna to present day poets like Kaloji Narayana Rao, B. Rama Raju, Pervaram Jagannatham, Kovela Sampatkumara, Kovela Suprasanna, Ampasayya Naveen, Ranganath Middela, Bollam, Varavara Rao and Anwar have contributed to Telugu literature.

Sarangapani was a famous folk singer, Nerella Venu Madhav is a mimicry artist who has received accolades countrywide. The famous music director Chakri is also from Warangal district.

  • Arya Samaj: Arya Samaj is the social organisation that has been touching the lives of people for the past five decades since Hyderabad was annexed in Indian Union. It has strongly opposed Khasim Rizvi's (the Nizam's commander) bloody campaign against the peasants under the leadership of Nanna Ramakrishna Arya and since then has been a spiritual centre for the common man. Able leaders like Sri M. S. Rajalingam, M. N. Rangachary (Parkal), Kaloji brothers, Bhandaaru Chandramoulishwar Rao, T. Hayagreevachary alias 'One Eyed Jackal', Bathini Mogilaiah, Ranganaikulu, Cheruku Kanthaiah fought for the freedom of Hyderabad and its merger into the Indian Union.


Festivals

Major Hindu festivals such as Bathukamma festival, Dassera, Deepavali, Sankranti (Pongal) are celebrated here. Bathukamma festival is very famous here and celebrated by the women worshipping the goddess for nine days with various flowers. In addition, the district hosts the Sammakka-Saralamma Jatara or congregation. Every two years (bi-annually), approximately 6 million people converge for over three days around the small village of Medaram and its adjacent stream/rivulet, Jampanna Vagu, 90 km from Warangal city. This fair is said to be the largest repeating aggregation of tribal communities in the whole world and commemorates the valiant fight put up by a mother-daughter combination (Samakka and Sarakka) with the reigning Kakatiya king over an unjust law. Also, this is biggest congregation after Kumbha Mela in India. Bonalu and Bathukamma festivals, symbolic of the Telangana region are also celebrated here (Bathukamma is celebrated particularly by women) with gusto.

Every year during the month of Ramzan, there is a festival atmosphere in Muslim areas, especially in Mandi Bazaar where the main road remains closed in the evening and is only accessed by foot. Many make shift shops and food eateries crop up serving the famous Haleem dish and lots of other foods, sweets and seviyan. Night shopping is very famous here when people fast the whole day and come for shopping, casual walk in the evening and shops are open almost till 1am in the night.

Fatima Feast is celebrated every year on February 12 and 13 by Catholic Christians at their Warangal Diocesian Headquarters of Cathedral Church in Fatima Nagar, Kazipet.

1000 pillar temple at Warangal
One of the Kirti toranas of Kakatiya Dynasty


City Affairs

The climate in Warangal City is tropical in nature, but there are dry spells especially during the winter season. The average weather is warm to hot throughout the year, with temperatures ranging from approximately 16C to 46C (60F to 116F). The summer season (April to July) has the highest temperatures, but these are usually followed by monsoon rains. The winter season (from October to February) is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Summer clothing is ideal throughout the year. Warangal is located 262 meters above sea-level.

Main Market:Warangal City is famous for food items such as mirchi bajji (mirapakaya bajji), mamidikaya pacchadi (pickle), gongura pickle, traditional spicy style meals and common breakfast items such as Idli, Upma, Pesara/Ravva/ Dosa, and Purimarker. There are many hotels that offer a varietiy of food items (from several regions of India). The common masala dosa stands, jilebi push-carts and sugarcane juice sellers can be noticed in every nook and corner of the city.

Market

Warangal has the biggest grain market called Enumamula. This market is the Asia's second biggest market. Mirchi (Red chilli) and cotton are the main crops here.

Supermarket

There are numerous markets selling vegetables, fruits, flowers and other commodities throughout the city. Also, many super markets are opening due to an increasingly expanding middle class. The traditional method of selling vegetables, flowers and other consumer goods using push-carts is still very common and effective. There are special Rythu-Bazars in most areas of the city to sell fresh produce. Locally famous fruits and vegetables include the oval- (unique honey taste) - sapota, mango, Seethaphal, and Dosakai (cucumber).Large grocery chains like Reliance Fresh, MORE, Subhiksha, Spencers at Subedari, etc., have opened outlets in the city.

Education

Warangal is the 4th largest city in Andhra Pradesh and is known for important educational institutions like Kakatiya Medical College and "National Institute of Technology". Established in 1959 as the first of "Regional Engineering College"s in the country, foundation stone laid by the then frist prime minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru, the NIT grew into an important national level institute for engineering studies.

Kakatiya University

Kakatiya Medical College

Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Sciences (KITS-Wgl)

National Institute of Technology Warangal (formerly known as REC Warangal/Kazipet)

Pathfinder Engineering College, Mamunooru, Warangal.

Christhu Jyothi Institute of Technology and Sciences

Lal Bahadur College (renowned as LB College)

Balaji Institute of Technology & Science (BITS)

CKM college

Arts & Science College

University College of Law, Subedari, Warangal.

S R Engineering College, Ananthasagar Warangal.

Vaagdevi College Of Engineering, Bollikunta, Warangal.

There are several non-governmental organizations active in primary and secondary education in Warangal District. Of these, the best known is the Rural Development Foundation andInstitute for Technology and Management,Warangal (ITM Warangal)

Sports

A wider Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (JNS) located in the heart of Hanamkonda.JNS is harbour for young sportsmen, which is associated with full-pledged tranining facilities.JNS is a state of art training camp for budding Gymnast coming across the state.

Cricket is by far the most watched and played game. Other popular local sports are Badminton (locally known as 'Shuttlecock'), Volleyball, Kabaddi and Gilli Danda.chaitanya degree collage

References



External links




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