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Tower of Hercules.
Roman Watchtower in Germany.


A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a regular tower in that its primary use is military, and from a turret in that it is usually a freestanding structure. Its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. In some cases, non-military towers, such as religious pagodas, may also be used as watchtowers. An example of nonmiltary watchtower in history is the one of Jerusalem. Though the Hebrews used it to keep a watch for approaching armies, the religious authorities forbade the taking of weapons up into the tower as this would require bringing weapons through the temple. Rebuilt by King Herod, that watchtower was renamed after Mark Antony, his friend who battled against Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later Augustus) and lost.
Maltese watchtower.


History

The Romans built numerous towers as part of a system of communications, one example being the towers along Hadrian's Wallmarker in Britainmarker. Each tower was in sight of the next in the line, and a simple system of semaphore signalling was used between them. They also built many lighthouses, such as the Tower of Herculesmarker in northern Spainmarker, which survives to this day as a working building, and the equally famous lighthouse at Dover Castlemarker, which survives to about half its original height as a ruin.In medieval Europe, many castles and manor houses, or similar fortified buildings, were equipped with watchtowers. In some of the manor houses of western France, the watchtower equipped with arrow or gun loopholes was one of the principal means of defense. A feudal lord could keep watch over his domain from the top of his tower.

Scotland saw the construction of Peel towers that combined the function of watchtower with that of a keep or tower house that served as the residence for a local notable family.

Mediterranean countries, and Italymarker in particular, saw the construction of numerous coastal watchtowers since the early Middle Ages, connected to the menace of Saracen attacks from the various Muslim states existing at the time (such as the Balearic Islandsmarker, Ifriqiya or Sicily). Later (starting from the 16th century) many were restored or built agaisnt the Barbary pirates. Some notable examples of military Mediterranean watchtowers include the towers that the Knights of Malta had constructed on the coasts of Maltamarker. These towers ranged in size from small watchtowers to large structures armed with numerous cannon. They include the Wignacourt, de Redin, and Lascaris towers, named for the Grand Master, such as Martin de Redin, that commissioned each series.The Martello Towers that the British built in the UK and elsewhere in the British Empire were defensive fortifications that were armed with cannon and that were often within line of sight of each other. One of the last Martello Towers to be built was Fort Denisonmarker in Sydneymarker harbour. The most recent descendants of the Martello Towers are the flak towers that the various combatants erected in World War II as mounts for anti-aircraft artillery.

In modern warfare the relevance of watchtowers has decreased due to the availability of alternative forms of military intelligence, such as reconnaissance by spy satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Modern day uses

An example of a modern, non-military use of watchtowers is the United States Forest Service fire tower in national forests. During the fire season, the USFS staffs the towers with observers who keep a lookout for wildfires.

Prison complexes in many countries also feature watchtowers to keep an eye on the prison population, particularly when they are outside in the prison yard.

See also







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