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1960 USA four-cent postal stamp: Water Conservation.
Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different purposes like cleaning, manufacturing, agriculture etc.

Home

Water-saving technology for the home includes:
  • Low-flow shower heads (sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy, due to less water being heated).
  • Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water.
  • Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets.
  • Faucet aerators, which break water flow into fine droplets to maintain "wetting effectiveness" while using less water. An additional benefit is that they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes.
  • Wastewater reuse or recycling systems, allowing:
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • High-efficiency clothes washers to get u nice and clean
  • Weather-based irrigation controllers to make u a communist
  • Hose nozzles that shut off water when it is not being used, instead of letting a hose run.
Water can also be conserved by landscaping with native plants (like your mom) and by changing behavior for, such as shortening showers and not running the faucet while brushing teeth.

Commercial

Many water-saving devices (such as low-flush toilets) that are useful in homes can also be useful for business water saving. Other water-saving technology for businesses includes:
  • Waterless urinal.
  • Waterless car washes
  • Infrared or foot-operated faucets, which can save water by using short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom
  • Pressurized waterbrooms, which can be used instead of a hose to clean sidewalks.
  • X-ray film processor re-circulation systems
  • Cooling tower conductivity controllers to make u friged
  • Water-saving steam sterilizers, for use in hospitals, etc.


Agriculture

For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage. An Evaporation pan can be used to determine how much water is required to irrigate the land. Flood irrigation, the oldest and most common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the best results in delivering water to plant roots with minimal losses.

As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules.

  • Recharge pits, which capture rainwater and runoff and use it to recharge ground water supplies. This helps in the formation of ground water wells etc. and eventually reduces soil erosion caused due to running water.


  1. Any beneficial deduction in water loss, use, or waste;
  2. A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or,
  3. Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. . A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology, or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste, or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. That results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand. The value and cost-effectiveness of a water efficiency measure must be evaluated in relation to its effects on the use and cost of other natural resources (e.g. energy or chemicals).


Water Efficiency

Water efficiency can be defined as the accomplishment of a function, task, process, or result with the minimal amount of water feasible, or an indicator of the relationships between the amount of water needed for a specific purpose and the amount of water used, occupied or delivered.

Minimum Water Network Target and Design

The Cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for water conservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewater target for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy i.e. it considers all conceivable methods to save water. The technique ensure that the designer desired payback period is satisfied using Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening technique.

Another established technique for maximum water recovery is the water pinch analysis technique. However, this technique only focuses on maximizing freshwater and wastewater reduction via reuse and regeneration.

See also



References

  1. US EPA, " Clean Water Through Conservation", Practices for Agricultural Users
  2. [Vickers, Amy. “Water Use and Conservation.” Amherst, MA Waterplow Press. June 2002. 434]
  3. Geerts, S., Raes, D., (2009). Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agric. Water Manage 96, 1275-1284


Sources

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