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Weimar ( ) is a city in Germanymarker mostly known for its cultural heritage. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringiamarker ( ), north of the Thüringer Waldmarker, east of Erfurtmarker, and southwest of Hallemarker and Leipzigmarker. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899. Weimar was the capital of the Duchy (after 1815 the Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar). Its cultural heritage includes the Weimar Classicism of Goethe and Schiller, the Bauhaus as well as the Weimar Republicmarker.

History



The oldest records about Weimar date back to the year 899. Its name changed over the centuries from "Wimares" through "Wimari" to "Wimar" and finally "Weimar".In 1410 it received city rights, however the growth of the city was severely affected by the 1424 fires.

In 1552 Weimar became the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar) and remained so until 1918.

18th and 19th centuries

During the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1809–1828), Weimar became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, and Herder; and in music the piano virtuosi Hummel (a pupil of Mozart, Liszt and Bach). It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in the late 18th century. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe's Elective Affinities (1809) is set around the city of Weimar.

Weimar Republic

The period in German history from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republicmarker, as the Republic's constitution was drafted here because the capital, Berlinmarker, with its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution, was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use it as a meeting place.

Weimar was, beside Dessaumarker, the center of the Bauhaus movement. The city houses art galleries, museums and the German national theatre. The Bauhaus Universitymarker and the Liszt School of Music Weimarmarker attracted many students, specializing in media and design, architecture, civil engineering and music, to Weimar.

Nazi Germany

In 1937, the Nazis constructed the Buchenwald concentration campmarker, only eight kilometers from Weimar's city center. The slogan Jedem das Seine (literally "to each his own", but figuratively "everyone gets what he deserves") was placed over the camp's main entrance gate. Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in Buchenwaldmarker by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs. The number of deaths at Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545. The Buchenwald concentration campmarker provided slave labour for local industry (arms industry of Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk). World War II ended with Nazi Germany's defeat and division into Eastmarker and West Germanymarker. From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Unionmarker used the occupied Buchenwald concentration campmarker to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. On 6 January 1950, the Sovietsmarker handed over Buchenwaldmarker to the East Germanmarker Ministry of Internal Affairs.

German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

Weimar was part of the German Democratic Republicmarker (DDR, East Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

Recent years

The European Council of Ministers selected the city as European Capital of Culture for 1999.

On 3 September 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Librarymarker. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust, in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible from 1534 was saved from the fire. The damage stretched into the millions of dollars. The number of books in this historic library exceeded 1,000,000, of which 40,000 to 50,000 were destroyed past recovery. The library, which dates back to 1691, belongs to UNESCOmarker world heritage, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. The fire, with its destruction of much historical literature, amounts to a huge cultural loss for Germany, Europe, and indeed the world. A number of books were shock-frozen in the city of Leipzig to save them from rotting.

Famous residents of Weimar





Districts



Education



Transportation

It is connected by one motorway and two routes:

  • Autobahn
  • Routes:


There are railways running from Weimar to Erfurtmarker (westbound), Hallemarker/Leipzigmarker (north-east-bound), JenamarkerGeramarkerChemnitzmarker (eastbound) and Kranichfeldmarker (southbound). The ICE-line-trains from Frankfurtmarker to Dresdenmarker arrive in Weimar every hour.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Weimar is twinned with:

Popular culture

Weimar, as "Traktionstadt Weimar", is the founder of the Traktionstadtsgesellschaft in Philip Reeve's series, the Mortal Engines Quartet. This is a fictional league of German traction cities, later joined by Manchestermarker, formed to combat the Anti-tractionists thousands of years in the future.

See also



References

External links




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