:翁文灏; Traditional Chinese
:Wēng Wénhào) (1889 – 27 January 1971) was a
, and paramount politician
He was one of the earliest modern Chinese geologists, and is
regarded as the founder of modern Chinese geology and the father of
modern Chinese oil industry in many literature.
From May to Nov. 1948, Weng served as the President of the
Yuan of the Republic of China.
The position is most commonly referred to
as prime minister or premier.
born in 1889 in Cixi (town), Ningbo (city),
Province in late
Dynasty, and his courtesy name
was Yongni (咏霓).
His father was a locally-famous businessman
In 1902, he was only a 13-year old boy but won the title of
"skillful writer" (秀才) in the Imperial Examination
. Later, he went to
and then entered a French
-speaking Catholic school there.
obtained his doctor's degree on geology from the Catholic University of Leuven,
Flanders, Belgium, in
He was the first Chinese who held the western doctor's
degree in geology.
1912, after obtaining his doctor's degree in geology, he went back
to China. He served as the Minister of Mine Industry and the
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, Beiyang Government
. At the same time, he
was also a lecturer and the chief professor (director, from 1914)
of the National Research Institute of Geography.
also a professor of geology in both
University and Tsinghua University.
He once was the head of the Department of
Geography, Tsinghua University. In Jul. 1931, he start serving as
the president (acting) of Tsinghua University.
1928 he assisted Canadian paleoanthropologist Davidson Black in the establishment of the
Laboratory for the research and appraisal of Peking Man fossils unearthed at Zhoukoudian.
period of Central (Provisional) Military Government of the Republic
of China, he served in the central government as the General
Secretary of the Executive
Yuan (13 December 1935 – 9 September 1937); the Minister
of Industry (till 1 January 1938), Minister of Education (28
October 1932 – 21 April 1933), and the Minister of Economy (1
January 1938 – 1947).
Chiang Kai-shek, He served as the
first President of the Executive Yuan of Nationalist
Government (capital Nanjing) (25 May
1948 – 26 November 1948).
In March 1948, he was selected to be a member of the Academia Sinica
. After the establishment of
the PRC, he also became a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica is based in Taipei,
with most members living in Taiwan and the
After 1949 & Late years
After Chinese Civil War
relocated to Beijing
and served in People's Political
with his longtime associate Qian
During the Cultural Revolution
he was specially protected by Zhou Enlai
In 1971, he died in Beijing
Academic achievements & activities
- One of the founders of modern Chinese geography;
- Set up modern Chinese oil industry;
- Studies of the Peking Man;
- Studies of earthquake in China.
He had four sons, the eldest one named Weng
(翁心源), was a famous petroleum engineer who was killed
in Cultural Revolution
second oldest was a pilot who was killed in the Second Sino-Japanese War
The founder of Chinese modern geophysics - Weng Wenbo
), an academician of the
Chinese Academy of
, is his cousin.
Weng Xinzhi (翁心植
academician of Chinese
Academy of Engineering
, is his nephew.
- Studies of Earthquakes in Gansu Procince
- A Brief Record of Minerals in China (《中国矿产志略》)
- Literary Collection of Zhuizhi (《椎指集》)
- Mourn for Mr. DING Zai-Jun (《追悼丁在君先生》)
- Earthquake (《地震》)
- Quadrumana Fossils in China (《中国灵长类动物化石》)
- The First Record on Chinese Mine Industry
- Paleozoic Plant Fossils in the Middle Part of Shanxi
- An Elementary Introduction to Earthquake (《地震浅说》)
- Lectures on Geology (《地质学讲义》)
Books on him
- Chronicle of Weng Wenhao, (《翁文灏年谱》), Oct. 2005
- Weng Wenhao's Outstanding Contributions to Chinese Oil
- Selected Works of Weng Wenhao (《翁文灏选集》)