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William Howard Hoople


William Howard Hoople (6 August 1868 – 29 September 1922) was a prominent leader of the American Holiness movement; the co-founder of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America, one of the antecedent groups that merged to create the Church of the Nazarene; rescue mission organiser; an ordained minister in the Church of the Nazarene, and first superintendent of the New York District of the Church of the Nazarene; YMCA worker; baritone gospel singer; successful businessman and investor; and inventor.

Early years

Family background

William Howard Hoople was born in Herkimer, New York on 6 August 1868, the oldest child and only son of Canadian immigrants Agnes T. Blackburn (born March 1844 in Osnabruck Townshipmarker, Ontario, Canadamarker; died after 1910), an Episcopalian teacher, and William Gordon Hoople (born 3 April 1841 in Dickinson's Landing, Osnabruck Township, Stormont County, Ontario, Canadamarker; died 28 December 1908 of "acute indigestion" in New York), an Episcopalian leather merchant. William and Agnes were childhood sweethearts who grew up in Osnabruckmarker in Stormont County, Ontario, near the Long Sault just across the Saint Lawrence Rivermarker from Upstate New York, an area had been settled originally by the 1st Battalion of Sir John Johnson's King's Royal Regiment of New York (also known informally as the Royal New Yorkers) after the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783. WG Hoople had been born on a farm granted to his grandfather Henry Hoople (born 1760 in Cherry Valley, New Yorkmarker; died 1838 in Stormont, Ontario, Canada) by the British government about 1797 as reward for fighting for the Loyalist cause but then occupied by Henry's widow, Mary Whitmore Hoople (born 1763; died 1858).

In April 1862 William G. Hoople migrated to New York city, in the same month as the second marriage of his father Joseph (born 1809 in Newington, Onario; died 1892 in Newington). In 1865 W.G. entered the firm of his uncle, William Henry Hoople (born 1805 in Ontario, Canada; died 17 June 1895 in Hastings-on-Hudson, New Yorkmarker, age 89), a prosperous businessman, who had founded Van Nostrand & Hoople in 1832 with John Van Nostrand at 38 Ferry Street, near the corner with Cliff Street, in an area of lower Manhattan known as "The Swamp", the fetid southeastern blocks of the city centred on Jacob and Ferry Streets just east of City Hallmarker, that had been "the (stinking) locus of the tanning and leather currying industry" since the late 1690s. This firm sold tanning materials and dyes.

W.G. Hoople and Agnes were married at the Long Saultmarker (now South Stormont), Ontario on 26 June 1867. Soon after William Howard Hoople's birth, the family moved from Herkimer to New York city. W.G. Hoople acquired US citizenship on 27 July 1869, at which time the family resided at 117 2nd Avenue (at the corner with Seventh Street) in what was then in the Little Germanymarker section of the Lower East Sidemarker of New York City. By September 1870, the family had relocated to Jamaica, Queensmarker, where WG Hoople lived with his wife; his widowed mother-in-law, Sarah Blackburn; and his two children, William Howard Hoople and Mary E. Hoople; and a servant. Subsequently their family was enlarged through the births of his three daughters: Mary Edith Hoople Staebler (born 19 April 1870 in Jamaica, Long Island, New York; died 1955); Clara Hoople (born 1875 in New York; died 1875); and Bessie Maude Hoople Nichols (born June 1880 in New York; died 1966). Within a few years the family moved to 352 Greene Avenue, Brooklyn, New Yorkmarker.

After the retirement of his uncle in 1870, W.G. Hoople became a partner and managed Van Nostrand & Hoople, until his uncle's death on 17 June 1895. As a reward for his stewardship, W.G. Hoople received a sizable inheritance of $55,000 in real estate from his uncle. In 1870 Hoople, in partnership with Edward Everett Androvette, established Hoople & Androvette, dealers in tanning materials and dyes, at 250 Front Street, New York city. Also in 1870 W.G. Hoople and Loring Andrew Robertson (born 12 November 1828 in Windham, New Yorkmarker; died 9 October 1890 in New York) formed Robertson & Hoople, which traded as a leather merchant. On 3 January 1884 W.G. Hoople and Robertson incorporated the New York Leather Belting Company which manufactured oak-tanned leather belting, waterproof leather halting, and electric belts at its factory at the corner of South Eleventh Street and Kent Avenue, Brooklyn. Additionally, W.G. Hoople had established Hoople & Nichols, in partnership with William S. Nichols (born February 1845 in Rhode Islandmarker; died 25 September 1892), whose son, Albert I. Nichols, later became his partner in the firm, and also married his youngest daughter, Bessie. This firm imported shellac, WG Hoople was also involved in real estate investments. In 1899 he sold the building that housed his offices at 38 Ferry Street, New York, to philanthropist businessman Charles Adolph Schieren (born 28 February 1842 in Germany; died 15 March 1915), the penultimate mayor of Brooklyn (1894-1895). The success of his various business enterprises resulted in William G. Hoople becoming a multi-millionaire. WG Hoople was also a member of the New York Drug Trade Club.

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn


Education and business

William Howard Hoople was one of the first twelve students at the Pratt Institutemarker, a co-educational trade school at Clinton Hill, Brooklynmarker, established on 17 October 1887 and endowed by Charles Pratt (1830–1891), the wealthy co-founder of Standard Oil, "for training skilled artisans, foremen, designers and draftsmen". After graduation from Pratt Institute, Hoople attended another business college in Brooklyn. About 1888 Hoople was still living at 1475 Pacific Street, Brooklyn with his parents. Soon after Hoople opened his own leather business, which manufactured Goodyear Welting at a factory he built on a property owned by his great uncle, William H. Hoople, at 50 Ferry Street, New York Citymarker. Upon the death of his great uncle in 1895, he inherited this property, then valued at $10,000.

Family

In 1891 Hoople married Victoria Irene Cranford (born 24 May 1867 in Brooklyn, New York; died after 1940). By 1896 the Hooples were living at 102 Decatur Street, Brooklyn. The Hooples had one daughter and five sons: Ruth Agnes Hoople (born 14 January 1892 in New York; died July 1972 in Syracuse, New York), who graduated from Syracuse Universitymarker in 1914, and completed a Master of Arts in History in 1915; worked for the next two years in social service in Buffalo, New Yorkmarker for the YWCA; was as a missionary with the YWCA in China (1917-1928), serving in Peking (1917-1918), at the Girls' Normal School in Mukdenmarker, Manchuria (1918-1920, 1924), and Tientsinmarker (from 1920, where she was general secretary of the YWCA in Tientsin); began a Ph.D. program at Columbia University in 1922; and later served as a chaplain at the Syracuse University, and as the executive secretary of the Syracuse-in-China programme (1941-1952); William Clifford Hoople (born October 1893 in New York; died 2 September 1943 in New York), graduated from Syracuse University in 1920, coached rowing at Harvard University, became an artist who provided illustrations for the Saturday Evening Post, Country Gentleman, and McCall's, and to accompany the writing of Agatha Christie; Gordon Douglass "Gymp" Hoople (born 19 February 1895 in Brooklyn, New York; died 4 June 1973 in Syracuse, New York), who after completing his Bachelor of Science (1919) and M.D. (1922) at Syracuse Universitymarker and his internship in Brooklyn, spent four months as a missionary in Chengdu, Chinamarker from December 1921, married Dorothea L. Brokaw on 2 August 1922, before departing on 24 August 1922 to serve as a missionary doctor under the Methodist Episcopal church as part of the Syracuse-in-China programme in Chongqing, Chinamarker, Professor of Otolaryngology at Syracuse University (1928-1953), who served on the Board of Trustees of the university since 1931, and chairman by 1962, and was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by his alma mater in 1967. Howard Cranford "Tot" Hoople (born 12 October 1897 in New York); died August 1977 in Damariscotta, Mainemarker); Ross Earle Hoople (born 30 June 1900 in New York; died 17 June 1946), graduated from the department of Syracuse University in June 1922, attended Harvard in 1922-1923, and was by 1932 professor of Philosophy at Syracuse University, and chairman of the Faculty Forum on Religion, and later the author of Preface to Philosophy: Book of Readings (1946); and Robert Blackburn Hoople (born 25 February 1905 in New York; died 31 March 1992 in Binghamton, New Yorkmarker), who graduated from Syracuse University in 1926, later earned a Master of Arts degree. By June 1900 they were living back at 1475 Pacific Street, Brooklyn with three servants, and Henrietta (Hettie), Victoria's 49 year-old spinster sister.

Personal

According to Basil Miller, "Hoople was a mighty man in frame as well as spirit, for he stood six feet and six inches (when he took off his leather shoes) and pushed the scale beam up at 250 pounds". In another account Hoople is described as "a large man with a commanding presence and great earnestness of manner."

Spiritual background

As a child Hoople and his family attended the Sunday School of the Central Congregational church located at Hancock Street, near Franklin Avenue in Brooklyn, and later became a member of that church. In December 1885 Hoople attended an evangelistic service for young men in the newly opened building of the Central Branch of the YMCA at 502 Fulton Street, Brooklyn held by Dwight Moody and Ira Sankey, and at the conclusion of the service, while the choir sang Just as I Am, responded to the gospel invitation and "walked into the arms of Jesus". In an interview for the Brooklyn Eagle in February 1895, Hooper indicated: "I was converted nine years ago at the Central branch of the Young Men's Christian association in Brooklyn". Hoople believed he was saved from "a life of frivolity and ambition."

Hoople was a baritone who "was blessed with a beautiful voice", and often sang solos and led the singing in churches of various denominations, at the Methodist Home for the Aged in Brooklyn, and at services sponsored by the YMCA and the Christian Endeavor Society. Additionally, by 1891 Hoople spoke regularly in Y.M.C.A. meetings, and preached in the Bethesda Congregational Church while the pastor was on vacation.

On 18 June 1891 Hoople was elected the first treasurer of the nonsectarian Industrial Christian Alliance, which would give "practical help to the outcast poor", in a similar manner to the methods of the Salvation Army. By 14 July 1891 the ICA was incorporated. On 30 November 1891 the Alliance opened a 39 bed home at 113 MacDougal Street (today the site of the Minetta Tavern), near Hoople's business, where the poor could stay for up to sixty days, "be cleaned, clothed, treated medically and mentally", and given the opportunity to work in one of the sponsoring businesses. Plans were to establish a depot for women, rescue missions, and to establish kindergartens, day nurseries, and industrial schools. One of the activities of the ICA was to establish a broom factory where the residents could work in exchange for their room and board, and the brooms and whisks were sold to generate income for the ICA. As a result of the Panic of 1893, unemployment and poverty increased dramatically in this area, necessitating the relocation of the ICA home to a 100 bed facility at 170 Bleecker Streetmarker by 1 May 1893. During the Winter of 1893, the ICA opened the People's Restaurant at its headquarters at 170 Bleecker Street and at six other locations. The ICA provided a million meals to the impoverished unemployed for only 5 cents for a hot meal for a family of four people, but by the end of 1894 the ICA was pleading to the general public for the first time for additional financial resources, and Hoople was no longer treasurer.

According to Hoople, "For several years after I was a member of a praying band". In the early 1890s Hoople began attending the noonday prayer meeting at the John Street Methodist Churchmarker in Manhattanmarker. There he met Charles BeVier (born 5 September 1858; died about 1905), "a zealous witness to holiness and choir leader at the largest Methodist church in Brooklyn." According to Nazarene historian Timothy L. Smith, "Hoople thought BeVier's "fanaticism" a pity, and set out to argue his new friend into rejecting sanctification. Instead, Hoople wound up finding the blessing himself" in his own shop in 1893. Hoople began attending some holiness meetings held in private homes in Brooklyn, "where they could worship God in the freedom of the Spirit." In July 1893 Hoople underwrote the expenses for the first ever camp meeting to be held in the small hamlet of Nanuet, New Yorkmarker, near his country home. At that time Hoople was a still a member of Central Congregational Church, which was pastored by Dr. Adolphus J.F. Behrends (born 1839 in Holland; died c.1899 in New York). However, by October 1893 Hoople had left the Congregational church and was attending the Methodist church at Windsor Terracemarker, Flatbush. In 1895 Hoople indicated that because he became an adherent of “Methodist doctrine”, he was "unwelcome in the Calvinistic church that nurtured his early faith in Christ".

Ministry

Soon after his entire sanctification, Hoople continued to operate as a leather merchant in business hours, but each evening he began preaching on the streets, in rented halls, and "wherever a tiny crack in some mission door appeared". Gradually Hoople believed that "God was leading him to provide a place where sanctified people could sing and shout to their hearts' content". Consequently, Hoople rented a former saloon next to a brothel at 123 Schenectady Avenue in Brooklyn. Hoople had it cleaned and furnished, and on New Year's Day, 1894, began holding services. On 4 January 1894 Hoople and BeVier, who led a Methodist mission in Brooklynmarker, opened an Independent Holiness Mission, with Hoople being elected superintendent by the members. From the beginning the basic motivation was to establish a holiness work and especially to preach to the poor.

Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle (1894-1904)

From this mission a congregation developed rapidly, necessitating relocation to a larger facility. Hoople; John Norberry, a Methodist local preacher; and Richard T. Ryons (born 1834; died 17 January 1915 in Brooklyn), a Methodist who had been an actor in the acting troupe managed by Laura Keene, found a vacant lot on nearby Utica Avenue, between Dean and Bergen Streets, which Hoople purchased with borrowed money. In April 1894 Hoople's father funded the estimated $2,000 cost to erect a simple one-story frame tabernacle-style church building that measured 49.5 feet in length and the same in width on the site. Just over three weeks after the building permit was granted, the new church was opened on 16 May 1894 with Hoople as pastor and 32 charter members. The Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle was dedicated on 15 June 1894 with the dedication sermon preached at 7.30pm by Methodist Rev. Dr. M.D. Collins of Ocean Grove, New Jerseymarker.

Late in 1894 Hoople was ordained, with prominent holiness movement leader Baptist Rev. Edgar M. Levy (born 23 November 1822 in St. Marys, Georgiamarker; died 30 October 1906 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniamarker), who co-founded the Douglas, Massachusettsmarker Holiness Camp Meeting in 1875, preaching the ordination sermon. Just prior to Christmas 1894, the non-denominational New-York State Holiness Association was opened in this building, with BeVier elected president, and Hoople elected vice-president.

At 9.30am on 1 February 1895 Hoople opened the Bedford Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle at the corner of south Third Street andBedford Avenue in east Brooklyn in a former Unitarian church which they leased for $1,000 per year. The congregation was organised as the Bedford Avenue Pentecostal Church on 24 February 1895 with 20 charter members. John Norberry was called to be its pastor. The church was congregational in polity with two elders (Hoople and Ryon), three deacons, and two deaconesses. It was independent of all denominations, and its doctrine was self-described as "Bible holiness and entire sanctification obtainable in this life". It prohibited raising funds through church fairs, entertainments or picnics. Hoople indicated: "I do not believe that money for the Lord should be raised through the medium of a man's stomach, or his mere love of amusements. The only offerings that will find favor in His sight is free will offerings." In 1895 Hoople described himself in the Christian Witness as a Congregationalist who had “embraced Methodist doctrine”. This logic lay behind the churches Hoople shepherded in Brooklyn. He rejected American Methodism’s episcopal system. Hoople received no salary for his ministry, and paid most of the expenses including rent, gas, and heat himself as the members of his congregation were often impoverished. One 1897 newspaper account indicated: "His work in the church is a labor of love. He receives no salary. The little church he built and paid for with his own money." At that time a church representative (possibly Hoople himself) explained:
We are an Independent, dependent body, and are not come-outers but as none of the evangelical bodies seemed to desire to push holiness as a second work of grace, and where they had tried this it took a good deal of coaxing and teaching and then after it was about accomplished some one came along and upset the whole thing, because they had control of the temporal power and were opposed to holiness; and as our time here is short and we didn't amount to much, we thought the most sensible thing for us to do was to walk alone with the Triune God.
Perhaps this may sound strange to some of my Methodist brethren, but after all you can't expect very much from one who was a Congregationalist and embraced Methodist doctrine.
Holiness is apt to make us appear to the world a little peculiar."


As early as February 1895 Hoople envisioned additional congregations: "It is my intention if our two churches become in any way self-supporting to start others in different parts of the town. There is plenty of room for them." The third church planted was the Emmanuel Pentecostal Tabernacle, which was organised at the corner of Lewis Avenue and Kosciusko Street, Brooklyn on Labor Day (Monday, 3 September), 1895 with Frederick W. "Fred" Sloat ordained as the pastor "amidst the outpouring of the Spirit", with the church membership soon reaching 39.

Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (1895–1907)

Hiram F Reynolds
On 12 December 1895 Hoople and BeVier, with the assistance of Hiram F. Reynolds, a Methodist minister who had joined Hoople's group in October 1895, organised the three churches into a new holiness denomination, the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (APCA), which was incorporated in the state of New York about 8 April, 1896, with Hoople, Norberry and Sloat as three of the six trustees. While all of the APCA churches were at that time in Brooklyn, the choice of name indicated clearly that the founders had a vision for it to become a national denomination.

The APCA proposed union with the Central Evangelical Holiness Association (founded in 1890), and ultimately most of the fifteen congregations of that group became members of the APCA. After initial discussions held in Hoople's parlor from 11 November 1896 that resulted in a plan of union being developed, the union was finalised on 13 April 1897 at Lynn, Massachusettsmarker. at which time the APCA decided to send its first missionaries to India. A standing missionary committee of twelve members was created to oversee all foreign missionary work, with Hoople elected chairman. This committee was the only central planning body of the denomination. While its focus was on its embryonic work overseas, which was to support missionary work from 1898 in India and from 1900 in Cape Verdemarker, its executive committee also increasingly supervised domestic activities.

In May 1897 Hoople was accused by two excommunicated church members of using hypnotism to frequently put some members of his congregation into trances that lasted up to three hours in special meetings held after the usual services, where one woman was allegedly driven insane, and one man even died of a heart attack. One church member indicated that during her sanctification, "I knew nothing of what was going on around me, but I was permitted to see God and he gave me hymns to sing and unhappiness fell from me." Paulin Vauclair, a deaconess in the Utica Avenue church, and one of the women who passed out during the services, denied the accusations against Hoople, indicating "It is the spirit of God which inspires us to act as we do, and Pastor Hoople has no more to do with it than you do." Vauclair indicated that a number of men and women fainted, and that these also occurred when Hoople was absent. Another deacon responded to the accusations: "Pastor Hoople possesses no power save that which comes from the Holy Ghost." After the accounts featured in the Brooklyn Eagle and elsewhere, Hoople took a three weeks' trip and the services were more subdued. However, on 27 May 1897 Hoople was still scheduled to join a number of APCA ministers at the dedication of the new People's Pentecostal Tabernacle APCA church at the corner of Latham and Division streets, Sag Harbor, New Yorkmarker on 3-4 June 1897.

The APCA grew steadily from 1897 to 1907 as churches were added in New England, the Middle Atlantic states, the District of Columbiamarker, Canada, and the Midwest. Reynolds organized churches in Oxfordmarker and Springhill, Nova Scotiamarker, in 1902. A congregation in Pittsburgh led by John Norris united in 1899. By 1907 there were churches in Illinois and Iowa. In 1900 the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute (now Eastern Nazarene Collegemarker) was founded at Saratoga Springs, New Yorkmarker, and relocated to North Scituate, Rhode Islandmarker in the fall of 1903.

By 1900 Hoople was a featured speaker in the Brooklyn Forward Movement, a movement that united pastors of various denominations to conduct co-operative evangelistic and civic activities, and to promote temperance. Their approach was to use churches as the venue for their activities rather than halls and theatres, and to have meetings extended over a longer period rather than those of only a few days. Hoople also supported the Prohibition movement and both allowed his churches to be used as venues for temperance rallies and to speak at them.

On 1 January 1904 Hoople resigned as pastor of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal church exactly ten years after he began the work in Brooklyn. At the 1904 annual meeting of the APCA, the delegates elected Hoople as both field evangelist and superintendent of home missions with an annual salary of $1,200 per year. However, by the end of 1904 Hoople resigned his full-time salaried position in the APCA partly because the committee would not act on his recommendations regarding the debt-ridden Pentecostal Collegiate Institutemarker. While remaining a minister within the APCA, Hooper then worked with Henry B. "Harry" Hosley (born November 1861 in New York; died 1925), then pastor of the Wesleyan Pentecostal APCA Church in Washington D.C. with the interdenominational Pentecostal League of Prayer, which had been founded by Richard Reader Harris (1847-1909) in Britain in 1891. During this time, the "famous Hadley Male Quartet, of which he was a member, spread Hoople's influence in the city, for it was a victorious group of men. If there were no other way through, the quartet helped Hoople sing his way through. When this quartet sang to an audience of six thousand at a meeting of J. Wilbur Chapman's revival in New York city there were few dry eyes."

PF Bresee
In April 1907 at a meeting at the Utica Avenue church between the leaders of the APCA (including Hoople and John Norberry) and Phineas F. Bresee, Christian Wismer (C.W.) Ruth (born 1 September 1865 in Hilltown, Pennsylvaniamarker; died 27 May 1941 in Wilmore, Kentuckymarker) and other representatives of the California-based Church of the Nazarene in April 1907, a plan of union between the two denominations was agreed unanimously, with consummation to be at Chicago in October. In May 1903 Ruth had contact with the APCA at a camp meeting in which he was one of the preachers. As he was considerably impressed with the APCA, he wrote Bresee from Allentown, Pennsylvaniamarker that "William Howard Hoople, H. F. Reynolds, and C. Howard Davis led a 'plain, fire-baptized, Holy Ghost people' who conducted "about the noisiest and 'shoutinest'" camp meeting he had ever attended." Despite the enthusiasm of the denominational leaders, union required considerable negotiation as, like many other pastors in the APCA, Hoople was a strong, independent-minded leader "who resented any compromise of congregational autonomy". Only a few weeks earlier, Hoople had written in the Beulah Christian: "With some of us our present form of government is a matter of principle." Hoople was willing to unite with the Church of the Nazarene if it would "consent to the Congregational form of government; [however] if it is to be the connectional Episcopal form there is one person in the Association who will be left out of the Union - the writer." After the plan of union was agreed upon, Hoople indicated that he had submerged secondary matters in order to facilitate "a combined attack on the powers of hell and darkness". Hoople admitted that he had had to "gulp a good deal down in order to make the union possible." At the consummation of the union with the Church of the Nazarene, the APCA had 45 congregations and 2,407 members, scattered from Iowa to Nova Scotia, while the Church of the Nazarene reported 48 congregations and 3,827 members at that time.

Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (1907–1922)

Hoople at General Assembly
At the General Assembly in Chicago in October 1907, Hoople started to re-consider his support of the union, and had thought of keeping the churches he had pioneered in Brooklyn out of the merger, but he finally acquiesced. While Hoople polled well in the election of the second general superintendent, ultimately Reynolds was chosen to serve with Bresee.

District Superintendent New York District (1907–1911)

After the merger of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America with the Church of the Nazarene to form the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene in Chicago in October 1907, Hoople was appointed the first district superintendent of the New York district (which included both the state of New York but also Connecticutmarker), a position he held reluctantly until 1911. At the Second General Assembly, which would be deemed later as the founding of the denomination, held at Pilot Point, Texasmarker in October 1908, Hoople was one of those who seconded the motion to effect the merger with the Holiness Church of Christ on 13 October. According to C.B. Jernigan, "Brother W. H. Hoople addressed the Assembly on the prospective joy of the union of the two churches, and expressed satisfaction in seeing nothing but the spirit of Jesus in all the deliberations. "It is holiness that has done it, and Jesus is responsible for it." Nazarene historian Timothy L. Smith recorded: "After the unanimous vote for union had been announced, a wiry little Texan started across the platform saying, 'I haven't hugged a Yankee since before the Civil War, but I'm going to hug one now.' At once Brooklyn's William Howard Hoople, his 275 pounds adorned with a glorious handlebar mustache, leaped up from the other end of the platform and met the Texan near the pulpit. Their embrace set off a celebration. The gap between North and South was closed forever." As a result of the consummation of the union, three general superintendents would be chosen. On the first ballot both Bresee and Reynolds were re-elected, with Hoople and Edgar P. Ellyson tied in third. On the second ballot Ellyson was elected.

John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (1909–1917)

In 1909, while still superintendent of the New York district, Hoople became the pastor of the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, which had been organized by founding pastor Charles BeVier on 17 December 1896 at the corner of Saratoga Avenue and Sumpter Street, Brooklyn. However, by 1907 the church had relocated to a site at the corner of Hopkinson Avenue and McDonough Street, Brooklyn. At this time Hoople resided at 1417 Dean Street, Brooklyn with his wife Victoria; their six children; Victoria's 53 year-old spinster sister, Emma Louise Cranford; and two servants. In 1911 the church was holding worship services on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings at 8.00pm, as well as a Holiness meeting and Class meetings at 8.00pm on Thursday evenings, in addition to a service at 11.00am and again at 8.00pm on Sundays. Sunday School was held at 2.30pm on Sundays, and a Young People's service held at 7.00pm. On Wednesday evenings at 8.00pm Hoople conducted a Bible Study and Theology class in his study. Finally, on Fridays at 4.00pm there were separate Children's and Youth classes. J.C. Bearse served as Hoople's associate pastor at this time. While Hoople was not known as a great preacher, he was known as a great pastor. His enthusiasm never failed to rally the people, and he lifted his melodious voice in song whenever the worship service lagged, raising the spirits of his congregation." In May 1913 Hoople was subpoenaed to appear in court after a sixteen year old Jewish girl who had converted to Christianity and joined the John Wesley Church ran away from her home and could not be located by her parents. During his thirteen years of leadership this congregation grew from 163 members reported in October 1908 to 350 members.

In 1912 Hoople was asked to chair a committee to investigate whether his friend H.B. Hosley, a pastor of "incurable independence", who had been pastor of the Washington D.C. Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene since Sunday, 28 December 1902, (thus replacing founding pastor C. Howard Davis), and the founding district Superintendent of the Washington District of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene since October 1907, should be disciplined. In 1910 Hosley had transferred the ownership of the church's property in Washington D.C. to an interdenominational holiness trust. Hoople, "a champion of local church autonomy", exonerated Hosley, who after June 1913 subsequently resigned and withdrew with the majority of his congregation from the denomination into a new group that was "Wesleyan in doctrine" but "independent and congregational" in government.

As a result of the disorganisation of the University Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene in Pasadena, Californiamarker and the removal of its pastor, Seth Cook Rees (born at Westfield, Indianamarker on 6 August 1854; died 22 May 1933 at Pasadena, Californiamarker), by fiat of the district superintendent on 25 February 1917, Hoople (who always had reservations about the need and power of the superintendents in the Church of the Nazarene) wrote to General Superintendent Hiram F. Reynolds in early 1917 that "the only basis under which he would continue to stay in the church was that he be released from all he had formerly agreed to 'in the line of Superintendency.' He would thereafter 'privately and publicly advocate away with all Superintendents." A few months later Hoople took a leave of absence from the John Wesley Church to participate actively in World War One. During Hoople's absence John Norberry served as pastor of the John Wesley Church.

Y.M.C.A. (1917–1920)

After the entry of the USA into World War I on 6 April 1917, Hoople volunteered to minister to the troops of the American Expeditionary Force with the YMCA. He was appointed a secretary of the National War Council of the Y.M.C.A. of the USA. On 18 May 1918 Hoople sailed for France. While in France, Hoople served on the front lines as an entertainer, where he not only raised the spirits of the troops with "his melodious singing", but also led many soldiers to Christ. While on the front lines, Hoople's health was affected adversely by exposure to poisonous gas. He was subsequently stationed in Italy and Germany, before returning to Brooklyn and his ministry at the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. However, by 1919 Hoople was the pastor of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle that he had founded in 1894, and Rev. A.E. Reid was listed as the pastor at John Wesley church.

After 15 September 1919 Hoople left New York again to serve with the International Committee of the Y.M.C.A. in Vladivostokmarker, Siberiamarker; China; and Japan. Hoople again ministered to the American Expeditionary Forces stationed in Siberia, and assisted in relief work among the civilian population. On his way to Siberia, Hoople visited Mukdenmarker to see his daughter, Ruth, who had been serving as a YWCA missionary to China since September 1917. After serving in Siberia, Hoople was able to visit Ruth who was now serving in Peking, China, where he was able to preach frequently. On 7 March 1920 Hoople arrived in Seattle, Washingtonmarker on the Japanese ship Suwa Maru, having left Yokohama, Japan on 19 February 1920.

Church of the Nazarene (1919-1922)

John Wesley Church of the Nazarene (1919-1922)

After his return to Brooklyn in 1920, Hoople resumed preaching at the now re-named John Wesley Church of the Nazarene. At this time Hoople and his wife Victoria, were living at 277 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, a three-story brownstone building in the Crown Heightsmarker area built in 1905, with five of his children; his two spinster sisters-in-law, Henrietta and Louise; and a boarder. Rev. Susan Norris Fitkin (born in Quebec, Canadamarker on 31 March 1869; died 18 October 1951 in Alameda, Californiamarker), the first general president of the Woman's Missionary Society for the Church of the Nazarene (now Nazarene Missions International) (1915-1948), her husband, Rev. Abram Edward Fitkin (born 18 September 1878 in Brooklyn, New York; died 18 March 1933 in New York city), and three of their children, were living nearby at 271 Brooklyn Avenue at this time.

Business interests

On 29 May 1889 Hoople applied for a US Patent for "a new and Improved Leather-Stripping Machine" that he had invented. Patent 412,503 was granted on 8 October 1889. On 17 January 1899 Edgar J. Force (born March 1847 in Canada) assigned to Hoople one-fourth of the patent for his invention of "new and useful Improvements in Curtain or Portière Pole Rings and Fastenings". In September 1900 Hoople registered the trademark for Hooples Metal Polish. By 1902 Hoople was a director of Raimes & Company (established 1892). By 1909 he was also the president (having replaced his father who had been vice-president when he died in 1908), a New York-based company that manufactured druggist's supplies, such as "soft gelatine capsules, potassium ioxide, and galenicals".

In April 1908 Hoople was a part of a consortium that founded the Circle Publishing Company with its headquarters in the SPCA building at 15 West 26th Street and 50 Madison Avenue in New York city, and purchased The Circle magazine (founded 1906) from the Funk & Wagnalls Company, with Hoople becoming the founding vice president and treasurer, and Eugene Thwing (born in Quincy, Massachusettsmarker on 17 January 1866; died in Ridgewood, New Jerseymarker on 29 May 1936), editor of the Circle since its inception, becoming president. However by 1910 the magazine failed, and was eventually sold in 1911 to the Thwing Company founded by Eugene Thwing. By 1909 Hoople was a director of the New York branch of the Cerebos Salt Company (founded in 1894), which had its registered office at 50 Ferry Street, New York, and appeared on the US market about 1904. By 1916 Hoople was the president of the Interstate Electric Corporation. By 1911 Hoople was listed as a director of the Spider Manufacturing Company headquartered at 50 Ferry Street, New York City. In 1916 Hoople was the founding president and one of the leading businessmen in a consortium that helped capitalise the American Motors Corp. founded by Louis Chevrolet in Plainfield, New Jerseymarker. Hoople was president of American Motors until his death in 1922. On 25 January 1917 the Hoople Corporation, which sold "metal polish, drugs, medicines, chemicals, baking powder, soaps, [and] groceries" was incorporated in New York state with $30,000 capital.

After the entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917, Raimes & Company, the American agents of Franz Schulz, Jr. Co., in which Hoople then held 2% of the shares, a German company incorporated in New Jerseymarker that manufactured metal polish, attempted to seize it's factory in order to preserve it and to allow its business to continue during the war. The owners of Franz Schulz., Jr. Co. subsequently sued Raimes & Company, for breech of contract and outstanding debts due to the Trading with the Enemy Act and the Alien Enemy Act.

Death

After a seven-week illness, Hoople died on Friday, 29 September 1922 in his home at 277 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, of war-related injuries. Hoople's last words were reported to be: "Jesus is my best friend." After a funeral at 2pm on Sunday, 1 October at the John Wesley Church of the Nazarene in Brooklyn, Hoople was buried at the Sleepy Hollow Cemeterymarker in Westchester Countymarker, New York.

References

  1. Year: 1861; Census Place: Osnabruck, Stormont, Ontario; Roll: C-1074-1075, Ontario > Stormont > Page 361; Year: 1851; Census Place: Osnabruck, Stormont County, Canada West (Ontario). Schedule: A. Roll: C_11752, Page 137, Line: 1, Source Information: Ancestry.com. 1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006; Source Information: Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library (Brampton, Ontario, Canada). Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1857-1924 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Ontario, Canada. Registrations of Marriages, 1869-1922. MS932, 695 reels. Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ontario, Canada. Division Registrar Vital Statistics Records, 1858-1930. MS940, 28 reels. Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Family History Library Microfilm: 1030065. Agnes is the daughter of William (see also: http://users.ap.net/~lancelot/gen/h146.html) and Sarah, who was born in English Canada in August 1820. Sarah was still living in 1910, aged 90. See US Federal Census (Year: 1900; Census Place: Hempstead, Nassau, New York; Roll T623_1079; Page: 18B; Enumeration District: 707); and 1910 US Federal Census.
  2. For a photo of William Gordon Hoople, see Moses King, Notable New Yorkers of 1896-1899: A Companion Volume to King's Handbook of New York City (New York: M. King, 1899):462. Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, 1795-1905; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1372, 694 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C., 15 July 1902; "Obituary Notes", The New York Times (30 December 1908):9, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B07EED9113EE233A25753C3A9649D946997D6CF; The Pharmaceutical Era 41 (D. O. Haynes & Co., 1909):24.
  3. Howard, 2:881; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):167.
  4. See William E.B. Howard, The Eagle and Brooklyn: The Record of the Progress of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle Vol. 2 (The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1893):881; http://users.ap.net/~lancelot/gen/h47.html; J. Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Canada: What Art Has Done for Canadian History: A Guide to the J. Ross Robertson Historical Collection in the Public Reference Library Toronto, Canada (Toronto: 1917):220.
  5. Also known as Mary Whitmoyer, see W.M. Baillie, "The Whitmoyer Saga", http://www.colcohist-gensoc.org/Essays/whitmoyer_saga.pdf
  6. Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, 1795-1905; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1372, 694 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  7. Joseph Hoople married Dianah Milross on 30 April 1862 after the death of his first wife, Polly Ann Ransom, the mother of WG Hoople. See http://users.ap.net/~lancelot/gen/h88.html
  8. "Died", The New York Times (18 June 1895):5; "Died", The New York Times (19 June 1895):5; "The News of Queens", The Long Island Farmer, Jamaica, NY (21 June 1895):8; North Eastern Reporter 72 (1905):229; "ROW OVER WOMAN'S MILLIONS; Heirs Contend That Mrs. Brinckerhoff's Will Is Not Valid", Special to the The New York Times (26 July 1910):14.
  9. By 1845 he was valued at $200,000, and considered: "One of the most wealthy and enterprising citizens in the leather trade". See Moses Yale Beach, Wealth and Biography of the Wealthy Citizens of New York City, 6th ed. (The Sun Office, 1845):16.
  10. Beach, Wealth and Biography, 32.
  11. Ferry Street no longer exists. It was a street formerly running from Gold Street, between Beekman and Frankfort Streets, eastward to Peck Slip at Water Street. The block between Pearl and Water Streets became part of Peck Slip in the 19th Century. The part between Gold and Pearl Streets retained the name Ferry Street until it was demapped about 1969 for the Southbridge Towers housing complex. See "F Streets of New York", http://www.oldstreets.com/index.asp?letter=F; "The Street Necrologys of Lower Manhattan", http://www.forgotten-ny.com/streetnecrology/lowermanhattannecrology/necro1.html (accessed 28 November 2009). According to the latter source: "Ferry Street was probably named for the nearby Fulton Ferry which connected the Fulton Streets in Manhattan and Brooklyn from the late 1700s to the 1920s".
  12. Cliff Street was previously known as Skinner Street or Lane between Ferry Street and Hague Street. It became part of Cliff Street in 1827. Now demapped". See http://www.oldstreets.com/index.asp?letter=S; and Scoville, Old Merchants, 262. A short stretch of Cliff Street survives between John and Fulton Streets. See http://www.forgotten-ny.com/streetnecrology/lowermanhattannecrology/necro1.html
  13. Originally known as Beekman's Swamp after Wilhelmus (William) Beekman (born about 1622; died 1707). See John Leander Bishop, Edwin Troxell Freedley, and Edward Young, A History of American Manufactures, From 1608 to 1860, Vol. 1 (Edward Young & Co., 1864):254.
  14. D. Graham Burnett, Trying Leviathan: The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case that Put the Whale on Trial and Challenged the Order of Nature (Princeton University Press, 2007):154; Frank Wayland Norcross, A History of the New York Swamp (Chiswick Press, 1901):172-173.; "Old Merchants Of The Swamp" (1921), http://www.oldandsold.com/articles14/new-york-44.shtml; Joseph Alfred Scoville, The Old Merchants of New York City (Carleton, 1864):252; Federal Writers' Project (N.Y.), New York City Guide, 7th ed. (Random House, 1939):100.
  15. Norcross, 172-173.
  16. Hoople, Hoople Creek, 118; Howard 2:881.
  17. Today this location is the East Village area. In November 2009 the American Grill restaurant is located at this address, see http://nymag.com/listings/restaurant/american-grill01/, and the Showroom NYC gallery is on the second floor at this address, see http://www.theshowroomnyc.com/theshowroomNYC/About.html.
  18. Ancestry.com. New York Petitions for Naturalization [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Soundex Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in Federal, State, and Local Courts located in New York City, 1792-1989. New York, NY, USA: National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region. Title and Location of Court: Common Pleas Court, New York County Volume: 371 Record Number: 133; WG Hoople, US Passport Application, 15 July 1902.
  19. 1870 US Federal Census, Year: 1870; Census Place: Jamaica, Queens, New York; Roll M593_1078; Page: 651; Image: 543.
  20. In 1892 Mary married physician Dr. David M Staebler (born in Ontario, Canada in 16 November 1857, the son of a German father from Hesse and a Swiss mother; died after 14 May 1943 and before 25 October 1944) See The Berkshire Evening Eagle, (Pittsfield, Berkshire, MA: 14 May 1943):8 and The Berkshire County Eagle (25 October 1944); Father: Jacob F STAEBLER b: 28 DEC 1817 in Bernhausen, Germany, Mother: Anna MUENER b: 19 AUG 1824 in Kein, C, Switzerland (see http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sztanyo&id=I2064); who had graduated from Trinity Medical School in Toronto, Ontario, who had migrated to the United States in 1890, and they had one son, Karl Merner Staebler (born 14 May 1895 in Brooklyn, New York; died November 1975 in Hackensack, New Jersey). David Staebler became a naturalized US citizen on 8 June 1899. See Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 25, Kings, New York; Roll T623_1063; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 436; Source Citation: Year: 1910; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 25, Kings, New York; Roll T624_973; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 694; Image: 700; Source Citation: Year: 1920; Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 5, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1151; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 280; Image: 1073; Source Citation: Year: 1925; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_3624; Line: 7; Source Information: Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006; Source Information: Ancestry.com. U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794-1995, Index to Naturalization Petitions of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, 1865-1957, Series: M1164; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):167. See http://users.ap.net/~lancelot/gen/h146.html
  21. There is record of a Clara L. Hoople who was interred on 29 December 1873 in a family vault in the New York Marble Cemetery at 52-74 East 2nd Street, between Second and First Avenue, Manhattan, see http://www.nycmc.org/intermentvaults.html
  22. Bessie became engaged to Albert "Bert" I. Nichols (born September 1878 in New York) on Saturday, 22 June 1901. See "Engagements Announced", Brooklyn Eagle (22 June 1901):11; and they were married on 11 February 1903 (see http://www.germangenealogygroup.com/nycBridesresults.asp?soundex=&kind=exact&Esurname=Hoople&Efirst=&CertNbr=&StartYear=&EndYear=&B1=Submit), see 1900 US Federal Census; "Managers of the Institution for the Aged to Hold Sale on Saturday", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, 18 November 1902):12; and Brooklyn Blue Book and Long Island Society Register (Brooklyn Life Pub. Co., 1905):142; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):121, 167.
  23. The Brooklyn City and Business Directory 1879-80, 472.
  24. Andrew S. Dolkart, "Report of the Landmarks Preservation Commission" (16 September 1997) re: John and Elizabeth Truslow House, p. 7, http://www.neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org/db/bb_files/1997JohnElizabethTruslowHouse.pdf
  25. The Long Island Farmer (Jamaica, NY) (28 June 1895):8, see "William H. Hoople's Will" (3 September 2008), http://sickdyingdead.blogspot.com/2008/09/william-h-hooples-will.html (accessed 15 November 2009).
  26. Dolkart, 7.
  27. Norcross, 147-148, 172-173.
  28. "Another Brooklyn Enterprise", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, 4 January 1884):4; "New York Leather Belting Co", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, 6 January 1884):4; http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Business/Progress/N/nyleather87.html (accessed 15 November 2009).
  29. Source Citation: Year: 1880; Census Place: Queens, New York City-Greater, New York; Roll T9_918; Family History Film: 1254918; Page: 504.3000; Enumeration District: 274; Image: 0222.; Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Queens Ward 4, Queens, New York; Roll T623_1150; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 685; Ancestry.com. New York City Deaths, 1892-1902 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2003. Original data: New York Department of Health. Deaths reported in the city of New York, 1888-1965. New York, USA: Department of Health.
  30. Directory of Directors in the City of New York (Audit Co., 1907):304.
  31. The New York Times (30 December 1908):8; The Brooklyn City and Business Directory 1879-80, 472; See Meyer Brothers Druggist 29 (C.F.G. Meyer, 1908):37 for large advertisement outlining their products.
  32. Norcross, 29; "The Political Graveyard", http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/schenk-schissler.html (accessed 15 November 2009); "House of the Day: 405 Clinton Avenue" (16 September 2008), http://www.brownstoner.com/brownstoner/archives/2008/09/house_of_the_da_564.php; http://rulers.org/nycboro.html (accessed 15 November 2009).
  33. The Pharmaceutical Era 41‎ (1909):24.
  34. Miller, 34.
  35. John N. Ingham, ed., "Charles Pratt", in Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1983):1113; Philip J. Bigger, Negotiator: The Life and Career of James B. Donovan (Lehigh University Press, 2006):193; The Story of Pratt Institute, 1887-1937 (Pratt Institute, 1937); "The History of Pratt", http://www.pratt.edu/campus/pratt_history#; Fern Oram, ed., Peterson's Four-Year Colleges 38th ed. (Peterson's, 2007):2032.
  36. Brooklyn Directory, 1888-89.
  37. Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness, 53, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/HDM2593.PDF; Stan Ingersol, "Across a Century: The Heritage of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America", http://www.nazarene.org/ministries/administration/centennial/goals/across/display.aspx; Miller, 34.
  38. Ancestry.com. Brooklyn, New York Directories, 1888-1890 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2000. Original data: Brooklyn Directory, 1888-89. Brooklyn, NY: Lain & Co., 1889; Brooklyn Directory, 1889-90. Brooklyn, NY: Lain & Co., 1890; William H. Hoople Location 1: 50 Ferry N. Y. Location 2: 1475 Pacific Occupation: leather Year: 1889, 1890 City: Brooklyn; State: NY; Norcross, 173; Basil Miller indicates it was 50 Terry Street, see Miller, 34.
  39. "A Large Long Island Estate", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, 28 June 1895):7; Norcross, 29; The Long Island Farmer (Jamaica, NY) (28 June 1895):8, see "William H. Hoople's Will" (3 September 2008), http://sickdyingdead.blogspot.com/2008/09/william-h-hooples-will.html (accessed 15 November 2009).
  40. Miller, 2, 34; Ingersol, "Across a Century". Another source indicates her name was Victoria Crawford. See Nazarene Roots, 84, http://www.usamission.org/Portals/1/Documents/chapter3.pdf. Victoria was living in Syracuse, New York as late as 21 December 1940. See Syracuse Herald.
  41. US Passport Application, 26 March 1896.
  42. Ingersol, "Century".
  43. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 33:3 (Alpha Chi Omega, 1930):460.
  44. Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925 (M1490) US Passport Application, Ruth A. Hoople, 2 November, 1919, Mukden, China; Florence A. Armstrong and Mabel Harriet Siller, History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity (1885-1921) 3rd ed. (George Banta Pub. Co., 1922):373; Archie R. Crouch, Christianity in China: A Scholars's Guide to Resources in the Libraries and Archives of the United States (M.E. Sharpe, 1989):282.
  45. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 25 (Alpha Chi Omega., 1921):457; Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):155; Milton Theobald Stauffer, ed., Christian Students and World Problems: Report of the Ninth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Indianapolis, Indiana, December 28, 1923, to January 1, 1924 (Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1924):477; Crouch, 296; Who's Who of American Women. 2nd ed. 1961-1962. (Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1961):476. (WhoAmW 2).
  46. "William C. Hoople", The New York Times (3 September 1943):19.
  47. Robert Frederick Herrick and Frederick Brittain, Red Top: Reminiscences of Harvard Rowing (Harvard University):156-157; http://www.philsp.com/homeville/fmi/c82.htm#A3862
  48. "Dr. Gordon D. Hoople, Specialist In Rehabilitation of Deaf, Is Dead", Special to The New York Times (5 June 1973):44; Durward Howes, ed., Who's Who Among the Young Men of the Nation, Vol. 1 (Richard Blank Pub. Co., 1934):285.
  49. "Persons Honored in the Painted Portraits on Display in the Health Sciences Library", http://library.upstate.edu/collections/history/institution/portraitbiogs.php
  50. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 25 (Alpha Chi Omega., 1921):218; Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):8-9, 192; Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 19 (1921):43, 326; William Freeman Galpin, Richard Wilson, and Oscar Theodore Barck, Syracuse University Vol. 1 (Syracuse University Press, 1960):451; "New Chairman Named By Syracuse Trustees", The New York Times (28 May 1960); "Hoople-Dolittle", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (29 June 1929):8; Milton Theobald Stauffer, ed., Christian Students and World Problems: Report of the Ninth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Indianapolis, Indiana, December 28, 1923, to January 1, 1924 (Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1924):511; The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 22:5 (American Speech and Hearing Association, 1957):734; American Men of Medicine (Institute for Research in Biography, Inc., 1952):490; "Awards and Honors: Recipient of Honorary Degrees", http://archives.syr.edu/awards/honorary_2.html
  51. '"Tot"'s Father to Dedicate Church", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (7 November 1921):10.
  52. Source Citation: Registration Location: Kings County, New York; Roll 1754592; Draft Board: 65. Source Information: Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 ; "DR. ROSS E. HOOPLE; Philosophy Professor, Long at Syracuse University, Dies", Special to The New York Times (19 June 1946):18; The Journal of Philosophy 43:14 (4 July 1946):391-392.
  53. The Harvard University Catalogue (C.W. Sever, 1922):150.
  54. Ross Hoople was still at SU by 1941, see Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):52, 93; Sigma Phi Epsilon 19 (1921):377; Ross Earle Hoople, Raymond Frank Piper, and William Pearson Tolley, Preface to Philosophy: Book of Readings (The Macmillan company, 1946).
  55. Source Citation: Number: 093-07-5721;Issue State: New York; Issue Date: Before 1951; Source Information: Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2009. Original data: Social Security Administration. Social Security Death Index, Master File. Social Security Administration., see Ancestry.com. U.S. Public Records Index [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2009. Original data: Merlin Data Publishing Corporation, comp. Historical Residential White Page, Directory Assistance and Other Household Database Listings. Merlin Data Publishing Corporation, 215 South Complex Drive, Kalispell, MT 59901. Robert B Hoople Address: 16 Frederick Rd, Binghamton, New York 13901-0101 (1990) [816 Westmoreland Av, Syracuse, New York 13210-1001 (1986)]
  56. He married Almeda Dolittle (23 June 1904 – 14 November 1988) on 29 June 1929, see The Trident of Delta Delta Delta 39: 2 (1930); "Hoople-Dolittle", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (29 June 1929):8.
  57. http://trees.ancestry.com/owt/person.aspx?pid=74160093
  58. Source Citation: US Federal Census Year: 1900; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 24, Kings, New York; Roll T623_1062; Page: 11A; Enumeration District: 418, page 27.
  59. Miller, 35. Hoople's US passport application on 26 March 1896 indicates he was 6 feet 2 inches tall, see Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007., Passport Applications, 1795-1905 (M1372); while his passport application in May 1918 indicates he was 6 feet 3 1/2 inches tall then, see Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925 (M1490).
  60. Another source indicates that at the General Assembly of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene at Pilot Point, Texas in October 1908, Hoople weighed 275 pounds. See Debbie Salter Goodwin, "THE HALLELUJAH MARCH: A Centennial Sketch for Presentation by Children".
  61. Bruce Herald, "Saw Heaven in a Trance: A Tale of Pentecostal Vision", Rōrahi XXVIII, Putanga 2880 (27 Hōngongoi 1897):3, http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=BH18970727.2.10&l=mi&e=-------10--1----0-all
  62. "WE'LL MAKE THE DEVIL HUM"; SO SANG LIEUT. PEAKE AT THE CAMP MEETING AT NANNET", The New York Times (21 July 1893):8, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9900E0DB103BEF33A25752C2A9619C94629ED7CF; "Central Congregational Church", http://www.nycago.org/Organs/Bkln/html/CentralCong.html
  63. Smith, Called, 53.
  64. Eugene Clark Worman, History of the Brooklyn and Queens Young Men's Christian Association, 1853-1949 (Association Press, 1952):63.
  65. While some sources indicate the Moody-Sankey meetings in Brooklyn were in January 1886 (see Basil Miller, Twelve Early Nazarenes, Chapter 9 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1941):34, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0201-0300/HDM0221.PDF; Duane V. Maxey, comp., "How They Entered Canaan (A Collection of Holiness Experience Accounts)", Vol. 1 (n.d.):1-2, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2101-2200/HDM2129.PDF), contemporaneous accounts indicate that the meetings were held at 8pm each evening for a week from 8 December, 1895. See Brooklyn Eagle: 6 December 1885 (page 1), 8 December 1885 (page 3), 9 December 1885 (page 2), 10 December 1885 (page 1), 11 December 1885 (page 1), 13 December 1885 (page 12), 14 December 1885 (page 3), and 27 December 1885 (page 4).
  66. "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, February 01, 1895):12.
  67. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907):3.
  68. "Current Church News", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 9 March 1895):4.
  69. Miller, 33.
  70. "Religious Notices", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 4 March 04, 1893):6.
  71. "Educational Work", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, 25 March 1891):4; "Christian Endeavor", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, 30 October 1891):4.
  72. "Not Relaxing Its Energies", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, 19 July 1891):19; "Church Items", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, 19 July):17.
  73. "To Give Men New Starts: What the Industrial Christian Alliance Will Do", The New York Times (19 June 1891):8, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9902E6DA173AE533A2575AC1A9609C94609ED7CF
  74. "TO EXTEND A HELPING HAND.; THE INDUSTRIAL CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE AND ITS FIELD OF LABOR", The New York Times (14 July 1891)8, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A01EEDF143AE533A25757C1A9619C94609ED7CF.
  75. "CELEBRATED ITS BIRTHDAY.; Thanksgiving at the Home of the Industrial Christian Alliance", The New York Times (1 December 1893):8, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9F04EED6103BEF33A25752C0A9649D94629ED7CF
  76. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 8 (Published for Harvard University by the MIT Press, 1894):176; William Howe Tolman and William I Hull, Handbook of Sociological Information (reprint: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009):148.
  77. "MORE ROOM FOR ITS GOOD WORK.; Industrial Christian Alliance in New and Commodious Quarters", The New York Times (1 May 1893):9, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E07E4DE1431E033A25752C0A9639C94629ED7CF
  78. "INDUSTRIAL CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE WORK; Cheap Restaurants for the Poor Opened for the Winter Season", The New York Times (8 December 1894):9, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9807E5DC1231E033A2575BC0A9649D94659ED7CF; The Quarterly Journal of Economics 8 (Published for Harvard University by the MIT Press, 1894):464; William Howe Tolman and William I Hull, Handbook of Sociological Information: With Especial Reference to New York City (G.B. Putnam's Sons, 1894):48.
  79. ; "Record of a Noble Charity", The New York Times (22 April 1894)21, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B00E1D7173EEF33A25751C2A9629C94659ED7CF
  80. "URGENTLY IN NEED OF FUNDS; The Industrial Christian Alliance Appeals for Aid in Its Work." The New York Times (23 November 1894):18, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9503E4DE1E31E033A25750C2A9679D94659ED7CF.
  81. Katherine Bevier, The Bevier Family: A History of the Descendants of Louis Bevier (Higginson Book Company, 1916):221; Ernest Alexander Girvin, Phineas F. Bresee: A Prince in Israel, A Biography (Pentecostal Nazarene Pub. House, 1916):322; Ingersol, "Century".
  82. Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century".
  83. Smith, Called, 53; Floyd Cunningham, ed., Our Watchword and Song: The Centennial History of the Church of the Nazarene (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 2009):61; Miller, 34.
  84. Redford, 30.
  85. "WE'LL MAKE THE DEVIL HUM"; SO SANG LIEUT. PEAKE AT THE CAMP MEETING AT NANNET", The New York Times (21 July 1893):8, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9900E0DB103BEF33A25752C2A9619C94629ED7CF. The NYT indicates erroneously it was at "Nannet".
  86. Behrends was the pastor of the Central Congregational Church from 1883 until his death, see Dolkart, 4, 7.
  87. "Mrs. Haeslip Was Dropped", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, 24 October 1893):10.
  88. "Across a Century: The Heritage of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America", http://www.nazarene.org/ministries/administration/centennial/goals/across/display.aspx.
  89. Brooklyn Eagle (1 February 1895):12. His 1896 US Passport application indicates he was still a leather merchant.
  90. Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Miller, 35.
  91. Redford, 30-31; Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Miller, 35.
  92. Fred Parker, "Those Early Nazarenes Cared: Compassionate Ministries of the Nazarenes", Preachers Magazine, (n.d.):32R, http://www.usamission.org/Portals/1/Documents/Those%20Early%20Nazarenes%20Cared%20by%20Fred%20Parker.pdf
  93. Brooklyn Eagle (1 February 1895):12.
  94. Manual of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal Church of Brooklyn, N.Y. (1904):2, http://www.mnu.edu/academics/mabee/manuals/Pentecostal_Church_Utica_Ave_ca_1904.pdf; The New York Times (20 January 1915):9. Redford says incorrectly it was Richard Ryans, see p. 31.
  95. Redford, 31; Directory of Social Agencies of New York (Charity Organization Society of the City of New York., 1922):348.
  96. "Brooklyn Realty Matters", The New York Times (22 April 1894):12; Norcross, 173; Redford, 31.
  97. See Manual of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (Los Angeles, CA: Nazarene Publishing Company, 1907):11, http://www.mnu.edu/academics/mabee/manuals/Pentecostal_Church_of_the_Nazarene_1907.pdf; Redford, 31; however Hoople indicates in his interview in the Brooklyn Eagle (1 February 1895) that "in June we moved into our present quarters on Utica avenue" (page 12).
  98. Smith says it was 37, but Redford and Miller both say it was 32. See Smith, 53; Redford, 31.
  99. see Redford, 1948:100; Smith, 53; Cunningham, 61; Ingersol, "Century"
  100. "Saturday Church News", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 9 June 1894):5; Utica Avenue Manual:2
  101. William Cathcart, ed., "Levy, Edgar Mortimer, D.D." in The Baptist Encyclopedia Vol. 2 (reprint ed.: The Baptist Standard Bearer, Inc., 2001; 1881):689; "The Rev. Edgar M. Levy", The New York Times (31 October 1906), http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C01E1DB1631E733A25752C3A9669D946797D6CF&oref=slogin
  102. William Kostlevy and Gari-Anne Patzwald, Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement (Scarecrow Press, 2001):39; Edward Davies, The Illustrated History of the Douglas Camp Meeting (Boston, MA: McDonald, Gill & Co., c.1890), http://www.douglascampmeeting.com/835/DOUGCAMP.PDF
  103. Ingersol, "Century"; Utica Ave. Manual (1904):2.
  104. "Holiness Association Formed", The New York Times (23 December 1894):12, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D00E2DA1231E033A25750C2A9649D94659ED7CF; Smith, Called, 53.
  105. "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, February 01, 1895):12; Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene), http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/hdm2593.pdf, p. 53; M.E. Redford, The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene, 3rd rev. ed. (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1974), http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0101-0200/HDM0145.PDF, p.31.
  106. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907):3.; Redford, 31.
  107. Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61.
  108. "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (1 February 1895):12.
  109. Ibid.
  110. Bruce Herald, "Saw Heaven in a Trance: A Tale of Pentecostal Vision", Rōrahi XXVIII, Putanga 2880 (27 Hōngongoi 1897):3, http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=BH18970727.2.10&l=mi&e=-------10--1----0-all
  111. Christian Witness, 3 January and 21 February 1895, quoted in Smith, 53 (http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/hdm2593.pdf)
  112. Hoople, "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (1 February 1895):12.
  113. In March 1904 Sloat transferred his ministerial credentials to the Methodist Episcopal Church where he was recognised as a deacon and was appointed pastor for two years of the ME Church at Barryville, New York (now Highlands, New York) on the Newark District. See "NEWARK CONFERENCE CHANGES", Special to The New York Times (30 March 1904):7. In March 1906 he was ordained as an elder in the ME Church. See Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1906):9, 37, and appointed for two years to Rockland Lake and Congers (1907-1908), and then for four years to the Summit Avenue ME Church, Jersey City (1909-1913), see Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1911):157; In 1916 Sloat was elected to a four-year term on the Board of Examiners. See Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1916):11. From 1927 to 1932 Sloat was pastor of the ME Church at Somerville, New Jersey.
  114. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907); Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Redford, 31. This church relocated to the former Monroe St. P.M. Church at Monroe Street and Stuyvesant Avenue on 21 March 1897, with Sloat still serving as pastor. See "The Emmanual Pentecostal Church" The Brooklyn Eagle (20 March 1897):8.
  115. Smith, 54; M.E. Redford, The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene, 4th ed. (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1948, 1965, 1971, 1974):30, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0101-0200/HDM0145.PDF
  116. The others were A.M. Owens, O.J. Copeland, and Harry Elsner. See "In State Departments", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, 8 April 1896):7.
  117. Ingersol, "Across a Century".
  118. Smith, 54.
  119. Manual, PCON (1907):12; Smith, Called, 55.
  120. Cunningham, "Watchword", 63.
  121. Cunningham, 63; Smith, Called, 61.
  122. Smith, Called, 61.
  123. "The Goodales' Story of Pentecostal Tabernacle Sanctifications; Mr. Hoople's Strange Power", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, 14 May 1897):16.
  124. "Trances at Revival Services; Unusual Happenings at the Pentecostal Tabernacle at Utica Ave.", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, 11 May 1897):16.
  125. Mrs. Elsinore, quoted in Ibid.
  126. Paulin Vauclair quoted in Bruce Herald, "Saw Heaven in a Trance: A Tale of Pentecostal Vision", Rōrahi XXVIII, Putanga 2880, (27 Hōngongoi 1897):3, http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=BH18970727.2.10&l=mi&e=-------10--1----0-all.
  127. Herald, op. cit.
  128. Herald, op. cit.
  129. "Rites of the Pentecostals", Brooklyn Eagle (12 May 1897):3.
  130. See "Church Dedication", The Brooklyn Eagle (27 May 1897):5. Among the clergymen of the APCA at that time were W.H. Hoople (spelled Whoople), H.N. Brown, John Norberry (spelled Narberry), F.W. Sloat, Charles Bevier (all of Brooklyn); H.F. Reynolds, New York; F.W. Weed, North Scituate, Massachusetts; A.R. Eagan, Good Ground (now Hampton Bays, New York); Isaac Rumsen, Jamaica, Queens; Andrew Pattie, Noank, Connecticut; and Charles P. Pattie, Norwich, Connecticut. Charles A. Renney was to be ordained pastor of the Sag Harbor congregation.
  131. "Movement is Extending", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, 23 February 1900):15; "Brooklyn Forward Movement", Brooklyn Eagle (Monday, 5 March 1900):15.
  132. "The 'Forward Movement'; Methodist Will Extend the Work on the East Side of the City", The New York Times (7 May 1898):5.
  133. "A Temperance Rally", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, 23 October 1901):12.
  134. Utica Manual 1904:2.
  135. Smith, Called, 65; Miller, 35.
  136. Smith, Called, 65.
  137. Hosley was married to Caroline E. "Carrie" Hosley (born August 1860; died 1953) by 1892 and had one daughter, Annie E. Hosley (born 1885). After a career as a huckster and a Real Estate agent, Hosley became a Methodist minister in 1893 and was appointed to the Wesley Chapel in Viola, New York at the Methodist Episcopal Conference at Newark, New Jersey in April 1895, see "M.E. PASTORS APPOINTED; The Newark Conference at Tottenville Ended Yesterday. WOMEN NOT YET TO BE ADMITTED", The New York Times (10 April 1895):7. Later in 1895 he left the Methodists, and became the founding pastor of the APCA church at Spring Haven, New York. See "The Rev. H.B. Hosley Installed as Pastor", The Washington Times (29 December 1902):4, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1902-12-29/ed-1/seq-4.pdf. From 1898 Hosley pastored the APCA church at Cliftondale, Massachusetts. See "Cemeteries of Fairfax County, Virginia", Hosley Family Cemetery, 3921 Old Mill Rd., Alexandria, Va.: "The land transfer from H. B. and CARRIE E. HOSLEY to Wesleyan Pentecostal Church on Dec. 16, 1923 (Db F9:543) reserves a 20' x 50' burial ground from the sale. The cemetery is located 20' to the rear of the current McLaughlin Farm United Methodist Church. It is surrounded by a low chain fence and has four holly trees in and around the area. There is one granite monument inscribed front and back. The cemetery is clean and well maintained". Surveyed 4/6/94 by Brian A. Conley. HOSLEY: I have fought a good fight, I have finished my race, I have kept the faith... Pastor HENRY B. HOSLEY 1862 - 1925 His Beloved Wife CAROLINE E. HOSLEY 1859 - 1953.
  138. Named for Samuel Hopkins Hadley (died 9 February 1906), superintendent of America's first rescue mission, the Jerry McAuley Mission at 316 Water Street, New York, from 1886 to his death. See John Wilbur Chapman, S. H. Hadley of Water Street: A Miracle of Grace (1906; reprint: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008):181; "Died", The New York Times (12 February 1906):7, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D00E4D81F3DE633A25751C1A9649C946797D6CF; "No. 316", Time (22 November 1926), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,722767,00.html; Arthur Bonner, Jerry McAuley and His Mission, (New York, NY: Loizeaux Brothers, 1990).
  139. Miller, 36.
  140. Cunningham, 148-149; Miller, 36.
  141. See Smith, Called, 130; Charles R. Millhuff, "THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE FULL-TIME ITINERANT EVANGELIST IN THE CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE SERVING THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA", a dissertation presented the Doctor of Ministry Committee, Nazarene Theological Seminary, (23 April 1994):61, http://www.nazarenerevivalism.org/nazarenerevivalism/Portals/0/Images/pdf/millhuffdissertation.pdf
  142. Cunningham, 143.
  143. William Howard Hoople, Beulah Christian (23 February 1907):8.
  144. Hoople (23 February 1907):8; Cunningham, 148.
  145. Hoople, Beulah Christian (20 April 1907):5; Cunningham, 150.
  146. "Merging Religious Bodies: Documentary Sources on the History of Ten Nazarene Parent Bodies: A Guide to the Microfilm Contents" (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Archives):1, http://www.nazarene.org/files/docs/merging.pdf
  147. Cunningham, 151.
  148. Cunningham, 151-152.
  149. Ingersol, "Century"; C.T. Corbett, Our Pioneer Nazarenes (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1958):10, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0401-0500/HDM0447.PDF; Miller, 36; William Howard Hoople, "New York District", Nazarene Messenger (18 November 1908):9, http://nazarene.premieris.com/archives/history/messenger.pdf
  150. Charles Brougher Jernigan, Pioneer Days of the Holiness Movement in the Southwest (Kansas City, MO: Pentecostal Nazarene Publishing House, 1919):93, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0501-0600/HDM0527.PDF
  151. Smith, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/hdm2593.pdf, 174.
  152. Cunningham, 161.
  153. Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 12 December 1896):8; W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes Vol. 2 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983):70; Ingersol, "Century"; Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac (1912):334.
  154. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907); New York Charities Directory: An Authoritive Classified and Descriptive Directory to the Philanthropic, Educational and Religious Resources of the City of New York (Charity Organization Society in the City of New York, 1920):505.
  155. Nazarene Messenger (18 November 1908):25; US Federal Census Year: 1910; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 24, Kings, New York; Roll T624_974; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 626; Image: 768, page 2.
  156. NEW YORK CHARITIES DIRECTORY (1911):686, 707.
  157. NEW YORK CHARITIES DIRECTORY (1911):707.
  158. Nazarene Roots, 82, http://www.usamission.org/Portals/1/Documents/chapter3.pdf
  159. "ABANDONS HER HOME TO CHANGE RELIGION; Father of Jewess Converted to Christianity Takes Her Case to Court", The New York Times (6 May 1913):4.
  160. Cunningham, Watchword, 161.
  161. Smith, Called, 57, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/hdm2593.pdf
  162. "The Rev. H.B. Hosley Installed as Pastor", The Washington Times (29 December 1902):4, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1902-12-29/ed-1/seq-4.pdf
  163. Smith, 190.
  164. Cunningham, Watchword, 199; Smith, 190.
  165. Paul S. Rees, The Warrior-Saint (Indianapolis, IN: The Pilgrim Book Room, 1934), http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2001-2100/HDM2047.PDF
  166. Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness, 217, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/HDM2593.PDF; Cunningham, Watchword, 209.
  167. "PRAYS FOR PRESIDENT AT WHITE HOUSE DESK; Minister Visiting Offices Asks "Full Health and Strength" for Absent Executive", The New York Times (31 July 1920):6.
  168. James W. Evans and Gardner L. Harding, Entertaining the American Army: The American Stage and Lyceum in the World War (Association Press, 1921):250.
  169. US Passport application, 4 May 1918.
  170. http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=View&r=an&dbid=1174&iid=USM1490_513-0432&fn=William+Howard&ln=Hoople&st=r&ssrc=&pid=516620
  171. Cunningham, Watchword, 286; Miller, 36.
  172. New York Charities Directory: An Authoritive Classified and Descriptive Directory to the Philanthropic, Educational and Religious Resources of the City of New York (Charity Organization Society in the City of New York, 1920):505.
  173. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 23 (1919):202; Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007., Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925 (M1490), US Passport Application, 5 September 1919;
  174. A.E. Foote, War Department (9 September 1919), US Passport Application, 5 September 1919; Miller, 36; Ingersol, "Century".
  175. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 23 (Alpha Chi Omega, 1919):11, 202.
  176. Miller, 36; Ingersol, "Century".
  177. Roll M1383_46, Ancestry.com. Seattle Passenger and Crew Lists, 1882-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Seattle, Washington. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1957. Micropublication M1383. RG085. 357 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Suwa Maru picture: http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/pictoria/a/1/2/doc/a12733.shtml; http://www.goldtel.net/ddxa/suwa.html; http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suwa_Maru
  178. The denomination had voted to rename itself as the Church of the Nazarene at its General Assembly in 1919 to avoid confusion with the Pentecostal churches that practised speaking in tongues (glossolalia).
  179. US Federal Census, 7-8 January, 1920; Source Citation: Year: 1920;Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1010, page 14.
  180. Property valuation (tax assessments) of Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City (NYC): 277, 290, 291, 292, 294, 298, 300, 302A, 303, 304, 308, 312. Read more: http://www.city-data.com/ny-properties/assessments/Brooklyn/B/Brooklyn-Avenue-12.html#ixzz0XvRDOHFj
  181. 1920 US Federal Census. Hoople's son, William Clifford Hoople married Marguerite Landenberger in 1915, (see Sigma Phi Epsilon Journal 13 (1915):338) and had left home, while his daughter Ruth temporarily returned from her missionary work in China.
  182. Source Citation: Place: Alameda; Date: 18 Oct 1951; Source Information: Ancestry.com. California Death Index, 1940-1997 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2000. Original data: State of California. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.
  183. Also listed as Abraham Edward Fitkin, see James Terry White, The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Vol. 27 (James T. White & Co., 1939.):142.
  184. US Federal Census: 7-8 January, 1920; Source Citation: Year: 1920;Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1010, page 14.
  185. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. WILLIAM HOWARD HOOPLE, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. LEATHER-STRIPPING MACHINE. SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 412,503, dated October 8, 1889. Application filed May 29, 1889.
  186. United States Patent Office, Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol. 86 (United States Patent Office, 1899); UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, "EDGAR J. FORCE, OF NEW YORK, NY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-FOURTH TO WILLIAM HOWARD HOOPLE, OF SAME PLACE", Patent number: 618005. Filing date: 26 February 1898. Issue date: 17 January 1899.
  187. http://www.trademarkia.com/trademark-details.aspx?tid=70035086
  188. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1902):430.
  189. The Financial Red Book of America (Financial Directory Association, 1905):243.
  190. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1909); Lesley Richmond, Julie Stevenson, and Alison Turton, The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Guide to Historical Records (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003):282.
  191. Who's Who in New York (City and State), Vol. 4 (revised; L.R. Hamersly, 1909):1280; William Edgar Sackett, John James Scannell, and Mary Eleanor Watson, Scannell's New Jersey's First Citizens and State Guide, Vol. 2: 1919-1920 (J. J. Scannell, 1919):451; The New International Year Book: A Compendium of the World's Progress (Dodd, Mead and Co., 1937):531.
  192. "The Circle Changes Hands", The New York Times (4 April 1908), Section: SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKS, Page BR186; Bookseller & Stationer 24 (1908):30.
  193. Robert Denton Fisher, Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities, Vol. 6 (Robert D. Fischer & Co., 1938):207.
  194. Printers' Ink 72 (1910):72.
  195. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1909); Adrian Room, Dictionary of Trade Name Origins (Routledge, 1983):52.; Pharmaceutical Journal: A Weekly Record of Pharmacy and Allied Sciences (J. Churchill, 1894):xxii; Scribner's Magazine 35 (Charles Scribners Sons, 1904):113; Good Housekeeping 43 (1906):408; Life 47:2 (1906):794.
  196. Automotive Industries 34 (1916):386, 785; Interstate Electric Corporation (A.E. Fitkin & Co.).
  197. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1911):680.
  198. Automotive Industries 34 (1916):386, 785; Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 14 (1916):421; Horseless Age: The Automobile Trade Magazine 37 (1916):208; Standard Corporation Service, daily revised (Standard Statistics Company, Inc., 1918):25; Automobile Quarterly 34:4 (1995):14; Griffith Borgeson, The Golden Age of the American Racing Car, 2nd. ed. (SAE, 1998):65.
  199. Lewis Randolph Hamersly and John William Leonard, Who's Who in New York City and State, Vol. 8 (L.R. Hamersly Co., 1924):632.
  200. "NEW INCORPORATIONS", Special to The New York Times (26 January 1917):13; NARD Journal 23:20 (National Association of Retail Druggists (U.S.), 1917):868.
  201. "PROTECTS ENEMY ALIENS: Germans In Fritz Schultz, Jr., Inc., Have Receivers Named", The New York Times (9 June 1917), Section: Business & Finance, Page 16; "Corporations. Legal Entity Theory. Effect of War", Virginia Law Review 5:1 (October 1917):71; Alien Property Custodian Report: A Detailed Report by the Alien Property Custodian of All Proceedings had by Him Under the Trading with the Enemy Act During the Calendar Year 1918, and to the Close of Business on February 15, 1919 (Ayer Publishing, 1977):347; Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals, Supreme and Lower Courts of Record of New York State Vol. 166 (West Publishing, 1917):567; Francis Deák and Frank S. Ruddy, eds., American International Law Cases Vol. 15 (Oceana Publications, 1971):216; Fritz Schultz,. Jr., Co. v. Raines & Co., 100 Misc. 697, 166 N. Y. Supp. 567 (Sup. Ct. 1917; Charles Henry Huberich, The Law Relating to Trading with the Enemy: Together with a Consideration of the Civil Rights and Disabilities of Alien Enemies and of the Effect of War on Contracts with Alien Enemies (1918) (New York: Baker, Voorhis & Co.):39, 79-81, 194-195.
  202. One source indicates it was 227 Brooklyn Avenue, and that his telephone number was Bedford 3020. See Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 14 (1916):421.
  203. "Obituary Notices", The New York Times (30 September 1922):9, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9506E4DD1E39EF3ABC4850DFBF668389639EDE; "Died", The New York Times (30 September 1922):9, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9A01E4DD1E39EF3ABC4850DFBF668389639EDE; Miller, 36.
  204. New York Times (30 September 1922)
  205. "Rev William Howard Hoople", http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9199984


Further reading

  • Cunningham, Floyd T., ed. Our Watchword & Song: The Centennial History of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8341-24444-8
  • Helping Men to Help Themselves. Industrial Christian Alliance, 1903.
  • Hoople, Elizabeth L. The Hooples of Hoople's Creek. Ryerson Press, 1967.
  • Industrial Christian Alliance 1891: A History 1891-1898. New York (N.Y.): Industrial Christian Alliance, 1898.
  • Kostlevy, William and Gari-Anne Patzwald, eds. "Hoople, William Howard", p. 132. In Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement. Scarecrow Press, 2001.
  • Hamersly, Lewis Randolph. Who's Who in New York (City and State). Issue 7. Lewis Historical Publ. Co., 1918. Issue 8, 1924.
  • Miller, Basil. Twelve Early Nazarene Leaders. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1941. [826870]
  • Smith, Timothy L. Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes: The Formative Years. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962. [826871]
  • Taft, William Howard and Frederick Morgan Harris, eds. Service with Fighting Men: An Account of the Work of the American Young Men's Christian Associations in the World War. 2 vols. New York: Association Press, 1922. http://www.archive.org/stream/servicewithfigh00harrgoog
  • Wilson, Rufus Rockwell. New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks. 2 Vols. 3rd ed. New York: J.B. Lippincott company, 1902.


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