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Wolf V. Vishniac (April 22, 1922 – December 10, 1973) was an Americanmarker microbiologist, son of Roman Vishniac. He was a professor of Biology at the University of Rochestermarker. He died while on a research trip to the Antarctic while attempting to retrieve equipment down a crevice. The crater Vishniac on Mars is named in his honor. Wolf had three sons, David Obadiah ("Obie"), Ethan and Ephraim, the first of whom died at the age of ten, Ethan and Ephraim being an astrophysicist and software engineer respectively, with his wife Helen Vishniac, daughter of George Gaylord Simpson, who was later a professor of microbiology at Oklahoma State Universitymarker.

Wolf Vishniac contributed greatly to the search for life on Mars by developing a special miniature laboratory that could be flown to that planet. This research was supported by a NASAmarker grant, which started in 1959 and was the very first ever for the "biological sciences." The Viking 1 Mars probe contained such a device but did not find any conclusive signs of life.

He was also a friend to the late Carl Sagan. On his show Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, in an episode titled "Blues for a Red Planet," Sagan talked about Vishniac's death and his microbiological sensor, nicknamed the "Wolf Trap," that was supposed to go on Viking, but did not make it due to budget cuts.

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