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World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. Over 60 million people were killed. The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses.

Total dead

World War II casualty statistics vary greatly. Estimates of total dead range from 50 million to over 70 million. The sources cited on this page document an estimated death toll in World War II of 62 to 78 million, making it the deadliest war ever. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is uncertain. Civilians killed totaled from 40 to 52 million, including 13 to 20 million from war-related disease and famine. Total military dead: from 22 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.

Recent historical scholarship

historical scholarship has shed new insight into the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Unionmarker has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet war dead. Estimated USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at 26.6 million. Scholars in post-communist Polandmarker now put total Polish war dead at between 4.9 and 5.6 million.


The German Army historian Dr. Rüdiger Overmans published a study in 2000 that estimated German military dead and missing at 5.3 million. War dead totals on this page for the British Commonwealth are based on the research of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Casualties listed here include about 4 to 12 million war-related famine deaths in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, India, and Bangladesh that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.

Human losses by country

Some nations in World War II suffered disproportionally more casualties than others. This is especially true regarding civilian casualties. The following chart gives data on the number of dead for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Nazi persecution, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes and deaths due to war related famine and disease. Jewish losses in the Holocaust are listed separately for each nation, since they are known. Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the U.S.S.R., China, Poland, Germany and Yugoslavia, our sources can give us only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war related famine. The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human Losses of World War II by Country
(Details Provided in the Footnotes)
Country Population 1939 Military deaths Civilian deaths Jewish Holocaust deaths Total deaths Deaths as % of 1939 population
1,073,000 30,000 200 30,200 2.81%
6,998,000 40,500 700 41,200 0.57%
6,653,000 58,700 65,000 123,700 see table below
8,387,000 12,100 49,600 24,400 86,100 1.02%
40,289,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.02%
6,458,000 22,000 3,000 25,000 0.38%
16,119,000 22,000 250,000 272,000 1.69%
11,267,000 45,300 45,300 0.40%
517,568,000 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 7,000,000 to 16,000,000 10,000,000 to 20,000,000 1.93% to 3.86%
4,235,000 100 100 0.00%
15,300,000 25,000 43,000 277,000 345,000 2.25%
3,795,000 2,100 1,000 100 3,200 0.08%
Dutch East Indiesmarker 69,435,000 3,030,000 to 4,030,000 3,030,000 to 4,030,000 4.3% to 5.76%
1939 Borders 1,134,000 50,000 1,000 51,000 4.50%
17,700,000 5,000 95,000 100,000 0.6%
3,700,000 95,000 2,000 97,000 2.62%
41,700,000 217,600 267,000 83,000 567,600 1.35%
24,600,000 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 4.07% to 6.1%
69,623,000 5,533,000 840,000 to 2,800,000 160,000 6,533,000 to 8,493,000 see table below
7,222,000 35,100 700,500 71,300 806,900 11.17%
9,129,000 300,000 80,000 200,000 580,000 6.35%
119,000 200 200 0.17%
India 378,000,000 87,000 1,500,000 to 2,500,000 1,587,000 to 2,587,000 0.43% to 0.66%
14,340,000 200 200 0.00%
3,698,000 1,000 1,000 0.03%
2,960,000 200 200 0.00%
44,394,000 301,400 145,100 8,000 454,500 1.02%
71,380,000 2,120,000 580,000 2,700,000 3.78%
23,400,000 378,000 to 533,000 378,000 to 533,000 1.6% to 2.3 %
1939 Borders 1,995,000 147,000 80,000 227,000 11.38%
1939 Borders 2,575,000 212,000 141,000 353,000 13.71%
295,000 1,300 700 2,000 0.68%
4,391,000 100,000 100,000 2.28%
269,000 1,500 1,500 0.56%
19,320,000 100 100 0.00%
819,000 300 300 0.04%
Nauru 3,400 500 500 14.7%
8,729,000 21,000 176,000 104,000 301,000 3.44%
300,000 1,000 100 1,100 0.37%
1,629,000 11,900 11,900 0.73%
2,945,000 3,000 5,800 700 9,500 0.32%
Papua and New Guinea 1,292,000 15,000 15,000 1.17%
16,000,000 57,000 500,000 to 1,000,000 557,000 to 1,057,000 3.48% to 6.6%
1939 Borders 34,849,000 240,000 2,380,000 to 2,580,000 3,000,000 5,620,000 to 5,820,000 16.1% to 16.7%
Portuguese Timormarker 500,000 40,000 to 70,000 40,000 to 70,000 8.00% to 14.00%
1939 Borders 19,934,000 300,000 64,000 469,000 833,000 4.22%
728,000 50,000 50,000 6.87%
10,160,000 11,900 11,900 0.12%
South Pacific Mandate 1,900,000 57,000 57,000 3.00%
See Table Below 168,500,000 8,800,000 to 10,700,000 12,254,000 to 14,154,000 1,000,000 23,954,000 14.18%
25,637,000 4,500 4,500 0.02%
6,341,000 200 2,000 2,200 0.03%
4,210,000 100 100 0.00%
15,023,000 5,600 300 5,900 0.04%
47,760,000 382,700 67,100 449,800 0.94%
131,028,000 416,800 1,700 418,500 0.32%
15,400,000 446,000 514,000 67,000 1,027,000 6.67%
Totals 1,963,208,400 22,597,200 to 25,497,500 34,564,600 to 47,009,600 5,752,400 62,294,200 to 78,439,200 3.17% to 4.00%


Human Losses of The Third Reich in World War II (Included in above figures)
Total Population 1939 Military Deaths Civilian Deaths Jewish Holocaust Deaths Total deaths % Population
Austriamarker 6,653,000 261,000 58,700 65,000 384,700 5.8%
Germanymarker 1937 Borders 69,623,000 4,456,000 840,000 to 1,940,000 160,000 5,646,000 to 6,556,000 7.8% to 9.4 %
Ethnic Germans other nations 6,912,000 601,000 100,000 to 730,000 701,000 to 1,331,000 10.0% to 19.2%
Soviet citizens in the German Military 800,000 215,000 215,000 26.9%
Totals 83,988,000 5,533,000 998,700 to 2,728,700 225,000 6,756,700 to 8,456,700 8.04% to 10.1%
Sources: See Footnotes for Germany and Austria
Human Losses of The USSR in World War II (Included in the above figures)
Total Population Military Deaths Civilian Deaths Jewish Holocaust Deaths Total deaths
1939 Borders 168,524,000 8,800,000 to 10,700,000 12,254,000 to 14,154,000 1,000,000 23,954,000
1939 Borders 1,100,000 50,000 1,000 51,000
1939 Borders 2,000,000 147,000 80,000 227,000
1939 Borders-Less:Klaipeda 2,400,000 212,000 141,000 353,000
Eastern Regions-Less:Białystok (figures included with Poland) 11,500,000 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000
Bessarabia & Bukovina (figures included with Romania) 3,700,000 100,000 200,000 300,000
Less: Transfer of ethnic Germans to Germany 1940 (430,000)
Growth of Population 1939 to mid 1941 7,923,000
Soviet deaths included in the German Military 215,000
Totals for USSR in Borders of June 1941 196,716,000 8,800,000 to 10,700,000 15,163,000 to 13,263,000 2,472,000 26,600,000

Notes

.

  • Figures rounded to the nearest hundredth place.
  • Population in 1939 - Source: Population Statistics[33019]
  • War losses are for the national boundaries of 1939.
  • Total Soviet losses in the postwar 1946-91 boundaries [33020] were 26.6 million.
  • Total Polish losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries[33021] were about 3,500,000.
  • Total Romanian losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries. [33022] were 460,000
  • Military Deaths - Losses include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non combat causes. Partisan and Resistance fighter deaths forces are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, Soviets, French and ethnic Germans in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses.
  • Holocaust victims

    5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German dominated Europe perished in the war.- Estimates for Holocaust deaths range between 5.1 to 6.0 million Jews. Other groups persecuted and killed by the Nazis . included 130,000 to 500,000 Gypsies ; 150,000 to 200,000 handicapped persons ; 2.6 to 3 million Soviet prisoners of war ; 1.8 to 1.9 million Poles ; 4.5 to 8.2 million Soviet civilians ; about 10,000 Gay men ; about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses ; between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy and an unknown number of Freemasons . "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder." During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution .

    Prisoner of war
    deaths in Nazi captivity totaled 3.1 Million
  • Japanese War Crimes

    R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims of Japanese war crimes at 5,424,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; Malaya-Singnapore 283,000; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000. ..

    Werner Gruhl
    estimates the civilian victims of Japanese war crimes at 20,365,000. Detailed by country: China 12,392,000; Indochina 1,500,000; Korea 500,000; Dutch East Indies 3,000,000; Malaya and Singnapore 100,000 ; Philippines 500,000; Burma 170,000; Forced laborers in Southeast Asia 70,000, 30,000 interned non-Asian civilians; Timor 60,000; Thailand and Pacific Islands 60,000.

    Werner Gruhl
    estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584. Detailed by country: China 270,000; Netherlands 8,500; U.K. 12,433; Canada 273; Philippines 20,000; Australia 7,412; New Zealand 31; and the United States 12,935
  • Victims of Soviet Repression

    The deaths of 400,000 civilians deported during the Soviet annexations in 1939-40 are included with World War II casualties. .

    Prisoner of war deaths totaled 600,000 in Soviet captivity .
  • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2007-08 is the source of the military dead for the British Empire The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated The Commonwealth War Graves Commission are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former U.K. Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organisations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of C.W.G.C. the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 03/09/1939 to 31/12/1947. The report is available online at [33023]
  • Sources - The footnotes list the details of the losses and their sources.


Losses by alliance

Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers.
Allied Military personnel killed, percentage by country.
Axis Military personnel killed, percentage by country.


Casualties by branch of service

Casualties of World War II by Branch of Service
Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoner of war Percent killed
Germanymarker Army 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9%
Air Force 2,500,000 433,000 17.32%
Navy 1,200,000 138,000 11.5%
Waffen SS 900,000 314,000 34.9%
Volkssturm and Police 231,000
Soviet citizens in German military service 215,000
Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) 6,035,000 11,100,000
Japanmarker Army 6,300,000 1,526,000 85,600 30,000 24.22%
Navy 2,100,000 414,900 8,900 10,000 19.76%
Soviet Unionmarker 1939-40 All branches of service 136,945 205,924
Soviet Unionmarker 1941-45 All branches of service 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,059,000 25.1%
Conscripted Reservists (see note below) 1,500,000 1,200,000
Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units 400,000
British Commonwealth All branches of service 11,115,000 580,351 475,000 318,000 5.2%
United Statesmarker Army 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 2.8%
United States Army Air Forces (included in Army ) (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5%
Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 1.5%
Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 3.66%
United States Coast Guard 241,093 1,917 0.78%
United States Merchant Marine 243,000 9,521 12,000 3.9%
Unidentified by branch of service [33024]. 130,201


Notes

Germany
  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown ; 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity; .
  2. Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that “It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the missing were killed in action, the other half however in fact died in Soviet custody”
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.
  4. The number of wounded includes 1,600,000 permanently disabled which was listed in Geschichte Des Zweiten Weltkrieges A.G. Plötz 1960. P. 81


USSR
  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead from 1941–45 on the Eastern Front including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million. There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939-40 during the Winter War with Finland
  2. The official recorded military war dead from 1941-45 were 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non combat deaths. ., 500,000 missing in action and 1,283,300 POWs. . Figures include Navy losses of 154,771. Non combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial
  3. Casualties in 1939-40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Golmarker in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939-40) (126,875).
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.
  5. The number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 1,836,000, plus an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.
British Commonwealth
  1. Number served: UK & Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK & Crown Colonies (383,667); Undivided India (87,031), Australia (40,458); Canada (45,364); New Zealand (11,928); South Africa (11,903);
  3. Wounded: UK & Crown Colonies (284,049); India (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363)
  4. Prisoner of war: UK & Crown Colonies (180,488); India (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415)
  5. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33025]


U.S.
  1. Battle deaths were 292,131, Army 234,874, Navy 36,950, Marine Corps 19,733, Coast Guard 574, and United States Army Air Forces (included in Army) 52,173
  2. The United States Merchant Marine war dead of 9,521 are included with military losses . .
  3. During World War II 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in combat. 350,000 American women served in the military during World War II and 16 were killed in action.


See also



Footnotes

  1. Albania

    No reliable statistics on Albania's wartime losses exist, but the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration reported about 30,000 Albanian war dead, 200 destroyed villages, 18,000 destroyed houses, and about 100,000 people left homeless. Albanian official statistics claim somewhat higher losses Library of Congress Country Study (see section The Communist Takeover of Albania)

    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200, these Jews were Yugoslav citizens resident in Albania. Jews of Albanian origin survived the Holocaust
  2. Austria

    Military war dead reported by Dr. Rüdiger Overmans of 260,749 are included with Germany. . The Embassy of Austria, Washington DC USA, provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing raids. These figures include the genocide of Romani people of 6,500 persons and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.
  3. Australia

    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves CommissionTotal deaths were 40,458 . The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33026]

    However, the Australian War Memorialmarker website article, Australian Military Statistics: WWII reports military deaths were 39,366 and civilian deaths of 735 due primarily to Air raids on Australia, 1942–43 and Axis naval activity in Australian waters.
    The Australian War Memorialmarker figures include those military deaths while on active duty, however the CWGC figures on this page also include the war related deaths during 1939-47 of discharged military personnel.

    The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was killed 23,365, missing 6,030, wounded 39,803 and POW 26,363.
  4. Belgium

    Belgian government sources reported that military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression. Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures. The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.
  5. Brazil

    The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510 , Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.
  6. Bulgaria

    Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, 2,000 military with Axis in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 military dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths. Regarding partisan and civilian casualties Vadim Erlikman notes " According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. The communists claim that 20-35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians." 3,000 civilians were killed by Anglo-American air raids ; including 1,374 in Bombing of Sofia in World War II.
  7. Burma

    Military dead of 22,000 were with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army Civilian deaths during the Japanese occupation of Burma totaled 250,000; 110,000 Burmese, plus 100,000 Indian and 40,000 Chinese civilians in Burma. . Werner Gruhl estimates Burma's dead at 170,000 civilians due to the Japanese occupation
  8. Canada

    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission . Total deaths were 45,364 and (102) men from Newfoundland [33027] Newfoundland's losses are listed separately since it was not part of Canada during World War II. However, the Canadian War Museummarker puts military losses at 42,000 plus 1,600 Merchant Navy deaths [33028] The CANADIAN VIRTUAL WAR MEMORIAL contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country[33029]

    The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.
  9. China

    Sources for total Chinese war dead range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below.

    John W. Dower has noted “ So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain “millions” of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union”

    The official Chinese government statistics for China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937-1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million; captured: collaborator forces 950,000.

    The offical account of the war published in Taiwan reported the Nationalist cCinese Army lost 3,238,000 men ( 1.797,000 WIA; 1,320,000 KIA and 120,000 MIA.) and 5,787,352 civilians in casualties

    An academic study published in the United States estimates total war deaths of 15-20 million from all causes: military casualties: 1.5 million killed in battle, 750,000 missing in action, 1.5 million deaths due to disease and 3 million wounded; civilian casualties: due to military activity, killed 1,073,496 and 237,319 wounded; 335,934 killed and 426,249 wounded in Japanese air attacks R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937-45 is 19,605,000. The details are as follows:

    Military dead: 3,400,000 (including 400,000 POW) Nationalist/Communist and 432,000 collaborator forces .

    Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes (not including an additional 400,000 POWs);

    Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalist's 5,907,000 (3,081,000 military conscripts and 2,826,000 civilian deaths caused by Nationalist government, including the 1938 Yellow River flood; political repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000 . Werner Gruhl estimates China's war dead at 12,392,000 civilian dead due to the Japanese occupation and 3,162,00 military dead. He also estimates an additional 1,445,000 deaths due to internal Chinese conflicts.
  10. Cuba

    Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners The Cuban sub chaser CS-13 sank U-176 on May 15, 1943.[33030]
  11. Czechoslovakia

    Military war dead of 25,000 included Killed during 1938 occupation(171); Czechoslovak Forces with the western allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic Axis forces (7,000); Partisan losses of (2,170) and killed in 1945 uprising(8,000). -- Totals do not include an additional estimated 30,000 dead in Hungarian Army. Civilian losses in include killed during 1938 occupation(262); non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals (26,500) and killed in military operations (10,000)). -- Civilian losses include the territories of prewar Czechoslovakia, including Carpathian Rutheniamarker which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was 7,500 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.
  12. Denmark

    During the Occupation of Denmark military war dead included 1,281Merchant Marine, 797 resistance fighters and 49 Army personnel. Civilian deaths included 628 victims of Nazi reprisals and 440 killed during military operations. The 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service are included with German losses. Figures are from Danish Military Historie website[33031]

    It has been argued that the disproportionately low figure for Danish dead is due mainly to the non violent policy of the Danish resistance movement during the occupation (see video: "A Force More Powerful", OCLC 45399754).

    Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.
  13. Dutch East Indiesmarker

    Sources for total Indonesian civilian war dead range from 3 to 4million as detailed below.
    Not including 30,000 non Asians interned by the Japanese

    John W. Dower cites a UN report that estimated 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia. .

    The United Nations reported in 1947 that “about 30,000 Europeans and 300,000 Indonesian internees and forced laborers died during the occupation.” They reported, “The total number who were killed by the Japanese, or who died from, hunger, disease and lack of medical attention is estimated at 3,000,000 for Java alone, 1,000,000 for the Outer Islands. Altogether 35,000 of the 240,000 Europeans died; most of them were men of working age.”

    The Dutch Red Cross reported the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 European civilians out of 80,000 interned and 12,500 of the 34,000 POW captured. Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 3,000,000 Indonesians and 30,000 interned Europeans.
  14. Estonia

    The total of the civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 were 33,900 including 7,800 deaths of arrested people, 6,000 deportee deaths, 5,000 evacuee deaths, 1,100 people gone missing during the occupation, 2,000 conscripts en route, and 12,000 conscripts in the Soviet labour camps. Losses during the Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany were 9,040, the Nazis executed 7,800 people and 1,040 people perished in Nazi prison camps. A documented 200 people perished in forced labour service in Germany or en route. The documented civilian deaths in Soviet air raids in March 9–25 were 800. An estimated 1,000 Estonians were killed in Allied air raids on Germany and 1,200 perished at sea while attempting to flee the country in 1944-45 An dditional 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944-45. Figures do not include the executions, deportee deaths, and insurgent losses in 1946–1989 caused by the Soviet reoccupation documented at 11,000. The figures on the table do not include the military deaths among the illegally drafted conscripts within the Soviet (10,000) and German Armed Forces (11,000). The genocide of Roma people was 243 people, Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 1,000. Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 81,740 (8% of the population). Not included in these figures are 102,000 persons who fled the country and became refugees.
  15. Ethiopia

    Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000. . Military losses were 5,000 .

    These totals do not include losses in the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935-41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and Italian occupation from 1935-41. . However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 Ethiopians and Libyans killed by the Italians from the 1920's-41, his estimate is " based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program "Timewatch" 1/17/92.
  16. Finland

    The Finnish National Archives website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead [33032].Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union as well as action against German forces in 1944-45, Winter War (1939-40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941-44 were 58,715 and 1,036 in 1944-45 in the Lapland War Soviet sources list the deaths of 403 of the 2,377 Finnish POW taken in the War. During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the German SS-Volunteer Battalion Nordost and 256 were killed in action.[33033]

    Civilian war dead were 2,000 . , due in part to theBombing of Helsinki in World War II
  17. France

    Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces(1939-40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940-45 on Western Front 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany. There were an additional 5,000 military deaths in French Indochina. The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed. Vadim Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000. French deaths in German Army (30-40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorrainemarker, are not included in these totals.

    Civilian losses include 120,000 killed due to military action and 230,000 victims of the Nazi reprisals and genocide (including 83,000 Jews). The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.
  18. French Indochina

    Sources for total IndoChinese civilian war dead range from 1 to 1.5 million as detailed below.

    John W. Dower estimated 1.0 million deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 1,500,000.
  19. Germany

    German Population

    The 1939 Population is for Germany within 1937 borders and the Free City of Danzigmarker.
    Not included in the German population are Austria and the 6,912,000 ethnic Germans of eastern Europe[33034]. However, the 601,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans from Eastern and Western Europe and 261,000 Austrians are included with total German military losses .

    German Military Casualties

    Dr. Rüdiger Overmans, an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office until 2004, provided an official reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical analysis of German military personnel records. The Overmans research project was supported and funded by the German government. The study found that the statistics collected by German military during the war were incomplete and did not provide an accurate accounting of casualties. The research by Overmans concluded that German military dead and missing were 5,318,0000. , not including an additional 215,000 Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany . Overmans includes 344,000 deaths that were previously listed as civilian losses in eastern Europe and 230,000 deaths of paramilitary, Volkssturm and police forces fighting with the regular forces.,

    Military Losses by Theatre

    Overmans lists the following losses- Africa 16,066 ; the Balkans 103,693 ; Northern Europe 30,165 ; Western Europe until 12/31/44- 339,957 ; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R.marker until 12/31/44- 2,742,909 ; final battles in Germany during 1945-1,230,045 ; other (including air war in Germany & at sea) 245,561 ; confirmed deaths of POWs in captivity 459,475 - Grand Total 5,318,000.

    Military Losses by Country of origin

    Overmans lists deaths of 4,456,000 men from pre-war Germany(1937 borders) and the Free City of Danzigmarker, 261,000 from Austria, 534,000 ethnic Germans conscripted in eastern Europe, 30,000 French (mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorrainemarker), and 37,000 volunteers from western Europe.
    In addition to these losses the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht reported the losses of Soviet citizens serving in the German military separately, these losses were not included in the Overmans analysis of German casualties. . A Russian source, G. I. Krivosheev reported these losses as 215,000 . In this schedule they are included with German military war dead.

    Military Losses by branch of service

    Overmans lists losses by branch as: Army-4,202,030; Air Force-432,706; Navy-138,429; Waffen SS – 313,749; Volkssturm – 77,726;Other Paramilitary and support forces- 153,891- Grand Total – 5,318,531. .

    Military Prisoners of War and Missing Overmans Includes in the total of 5,318,000 war dead 2,008,000 men that are listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war and 459,000 prisoners of war who died in captivity. The details of these POW deaths by country that held them in custody are as follows: USSR 363,000; France 34,000; USA 22,000; UK 21,000; Yugoslavia 11,000; other nations 8,000 Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that “It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the missing were killed in action, the other half however in fact died in Soviet custody” Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.

    German Civilian casualties during the war


    German civilian casualties totaled 1,130,000 including: 360-370,000 killed by Strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries ., 125,000 civilians were killed in the Battle of Berlin . A study by the German government archives estimated 260,000 German civilians were killed by the Soviet military and their allies in Eastern Europe . The German government reported that 300,000 Germans were victims of Nazi political, racial and religious persecution (including 160,000 German Jews . and 15,000 Roma people ). In addition there were 70,273 German victims of the Action T4 euthanasia program.

    German Civilian Casualties-Due to Expulsions and Forced Labor in the Soviet Union


    Civilian deaths due to the expulsion of Germans after World War II and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are sometimes included with World War II Casualties.

    A 1958 West German government demographic study estimated 2,225,000 civilians perished during the post war expulsions ( 1,339,000 from pre war Germany and 886,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe not including the Soviet Union).

    A revised demographic analysis published in 1995, which has the support of the German government , estimated 2,020,000 civilians perished during the post war expulsions and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union ( 978,000 from pre war Germany, 732,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe and 310,000 ethnic Germans from the Soviet Union). (Including 270,000 German civilians who perished during the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union ( 160,000 from pre war Germany, 110,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe) .

    Dr. Rűdiger Overmans points out that there are only about 500,000 confirmed deaths of German civilians in eastern Europe, the balance being a demographic estimate, Overmans believes that new research on the number of expulsion deaths is needed. [33035]

    A 1974 study by the German government archives estimated the civilian death toll of 160,000 in post war deportation camps or in transit during the expulsion of Germans after World War II. These figures do not include additional post war deaths from hunger and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions, estimated but not confirmed at about 1.0 million persons

    Polish scholars maintain that the official German government statistics are overstated because they include persons who were listed as missing and presumed dead ,but were living in the GDRmarker and bi-lingual persons who remained in Eastern Europe but were no longer considered ethnic Germans in the census figures.
    . The study of German military casualties by Dr. Rüdiger Overmans found 344,000 additional military deaths of Germans from Eastern Europe. Overmans believes this will reduce the number of civilians previously listed as missing in Eastern Europe.

    There were additional post war famine deaths in occupied Germany of 250,000 In Allied occupied the Germany shortage of food was an acute problem according to Alan S. Milward in 1946–47 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,080, an amount insufficient for long-term health.

    Summary of German Civilian deaths in Eastern Europe


    A recap of the roughly 2 million German civilian deaths in Eastern Europe is as follows: About 500,000 are confirmed deaths, the balance being a demographic estimate. . Broken out by national origin; 978,000 were from pre war Germany in 1937 borders, 732,000 were ethnic Germans from eastern Europe and 310,000 were ethnic Germans in the Soviet Union

    Those deaths during the war included 260,000 German civilians killed by the Soviet military and their allies in Eastern Europe

    Those deaths after the war included 270,000 German civilians who perished during the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union. , 160,000 confirmed deaths in the post war deportation camps or in transit during the expulsion of Germans after World War II and a demographic estimate of an additional 1.0 million deaths from hunger and disease of civilians subject to the expulsions. .

    The 310,000 deaths of ethnic Germans deported in the USSR . . are included with the balance of total Soviet war losses

    Prior estimates made in the 1950s by German government

    A preliminary estimate of war dead made in 1949 by the West German government for the population only within the borders of 1937 Germany, was 3,250,000 military dead and missing plus 500,000 dead and 1,533,000 missing civilians .

    In 1956 these figures were revised by the West German government for losses only within the borders of 1937 Germany; 3,760,000 military dead and missing, 410,000 civilians killed by Strategic bombing and 1,260,000 civilians killed in the expulsions from Poland. . These figures did not include additional losses from Austria, 280,000 in the German military and 24,000 civilians; ethnic Germans from eastern Europe, 432,000 deaths in the German military and 886,000 ethnic German civilians killed in expulsions ; and 60,000 German military deaths of men conscripted in France and western Europe. Total 4,530,000 for entire German Armed Forces and 2,556,000 civilians .
  20. Greece

    The Greek National Council for Reparations from Germany reports the following casualties during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.

    Military dead: 35,077 including, losses in the Greco-Italian War of 1940-41-13,327; Greek Forces in the Mid East 1,100 and 20,650 partisan deaths.

    Civilian Deaths: 771,845 including: executed by Axis forces 56,225; dead in German concentration camps(including Jews) 105,000; deaths due to bombing 7,120 and 3,500 merchant marine dead, war related famine 600,000 deaths Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 71,301.
  21. Hungary

    Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of losses from 1941-45 in Hungary. Military losses were 300,000-310,000 including 110-120,000 killed in battle and 200,000 missing in action and POW in the Soviet Union. Hungarian military losses include 110,000 men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakiamarker, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20-25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Soviet sources list the deaths of 54,700 of the 513,700 Hungarian POW taken in the War. Civilian losses of about 80,000 include 45,500 killed in the 1944-45 military campaign and in air attacks, and the genocide of Roma people of 28,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 200,000. .
  22. Iceland

    Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.
  23. India

    1939 Population of India included the present day Indiamarker, Pakistanmarker and Bangladeshmarker.
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, total deaths were 87,031 . The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33036]The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489. The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing . Gurkhas recruited from Nepalmarker fought with the British Indian Army during the Second World War.

    Sources for total Indian Empire civilian war dead range from 1.5 to 2.5 million as detailed below.

    John W.
    Dower estimated 1.5 million civilian deaths in the Bengal famine of 1943. . Amartya Sen currently the Lamont University Professor at Harvard Universitymarker has recently estimated that two to two and a half million fatalities may be more accurate. Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the Bengal famine of 1943 at 2,000,000.
  24. Iran

    Losses during allied occupation in 1941. .
  25. Iraq

    Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941. .
  26. Ireland

    Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties. In 1995 Irish Taoiseach(Prime Minister)John Bruton claimed at least 10,000 Irish were killed serving in the British or Commonwealth armed forces. The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the Irish Pine[33037] and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances.[33038] .
  27. Italy

    The official Italian government accounting of World War II 1940-45 losses listed the following data. . Total military dead and missing from 1940-45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 ( 66,686 killed, 111,579 missing, 26,081 died of disease), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (42,916 killed, 19,840 missing, 24,274 died of disease). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania & Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other & unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 ( 123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks . A brief summary of data from this report can be found online at -[33039](go to Vol 13, No. 15).

    There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were estimated by the Italian military at 10,000 in East African Campaign of 1940-41. .

    Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews . Soviet sources list the deaths of 28,000 of the 49,000 Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954 Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces. The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562. (including Libya)
  28. Japan

    1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.

    John W.
    Dower reported that Japanese government figures list the military deaths of 1,740,955 from 1937-45. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937-41 and 1,555,308 from 1941-45 in the Pacific War. Army - Against US- 485,717; Against UK/Netherlands-208,026; In China-202,958; Against Australia -199,511; French Indochina -2,803; Against USSR -7,483; Other overseas -23,388; Japan proper -10,543. Navy 1941/45 -414,879."only one third of the military deaths occurred in actual combat, the majority being caused by illness and starvation" . In addition there were the deaths of prisoners after the surrender. According to John W. Dower; the "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities" . An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender in Manchuria, Korea and the U.S.S.R. . The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Koreamarker, 9,000 from Sakhalinmarker and 103,000 in the U.S.S.R.marker. These figures were disputed by the Soviet Union, which reported the deaths of only about 60,000 of the 609,400 Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

    Military deaths include Koreans and Chinese from Taiwan(30,304)[33040] conscripted by Japan. Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.

    John W.
    Dower reports civilian losses due to U. S. Strategic bombing according to official Japanese figures were 393,367 dead, including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and 97,031 in the Bombing of Tokyo in World War IImarker. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawamarker and 10,000 on Saipanmarker during the fighting. War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.

    The Yasukuni Shrinemarker in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937-1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces.
  29. Korea

    Sources for total Korean civilian war dead range from 378,000 to 533,000 as detailed below.

    The American researcher R. J. Rummel's estimates 378,000 Korean dead due to forced labor in Japan and Manchuria. According to Rummel “Information on Korean deaths under Japanese occupation is difficult to uncover. We do know that 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted for labor beginning in 1939, but how many died can only be roughly estimated.”. .

    John W.
    Dower has reported “ Between 1939 and 1945, close to 670,000 Koreans were brought to Japan for fixed terms of work, mostly in mines and heavy industry, and it has been estimated that 60,000 or more of them died under harsh conditions of their work places. Over 10,000 others were probably killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki” .

    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 483,000 and an additional 50,000 deaths of Koreans conscripted in the Japanese military service

    A Korean demographic study reports “the mortality level and the course of mortality changes among Koreans in Korea during the war, appear not to have been much affected. Even for all Koreans living in Korea, Japan and Manchuria, the impact of World War II on the trend and level of mortality is not likely to have been significant. The same source reports '6,369 Koreans to have died in the Japanese military forces, and the number rises to 14,527 when civilians attached to the military forces is added’

    Korean military forces fighting against Japan were the Korean Liberation Army under Chinese Nationalist command and the Korean Volunteer Army which fought with the Chinese Communist guerrillas.
  30. Latvia

    Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet(13,000) and German Armed Forces (24,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 287,000(14% of the population) The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000
  31. Lithuania

    Includes civilian losses due to war (345,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (27,000) and German Armed Forces (8,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 448,000(15% of the population) The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000
  32. Luxembourg

    Total war dead were 5,000 which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700.
  33. Malaysia

    Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.
  34. Malta

    Air attack victims. . The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta [33041]
  35. Mexico

    Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 5 combat deaths.
  36. Mongolia

    Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Golmarker (200) and the 1945 Soviet invasion of Manchuria (72) campaigns.
  37. Nauru

    Estimate of 1939 population of Nauru (Australian trust territory) sourced from Populstat.info. Deaths are for 463 Nauruan labourers deported by Japanese authorities to the Caroline Islands (details from [www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16447.htm United States State Department])
  38. Netherlands

    Dutch government figures for losses in Europe released in 1948 by the Central Bureau of Statistics( CBS) listed 210,000 direct war casualties plus an additional 70,000 disease deaths caused by the war. The details are as follows: Military deaths of 8,100; which included 2,200 regular Army, 1,700 Dutch Resistance forces, 2,600 Navy forces, 250 POW in Germany and 1,350 Merchant seaman. Civilian deaths of 271,900; which included 27,000 forced workers in Germany, 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany, 2,800 victims of executions, 2,500 deaths in Dutch concentration camps, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 20,400 deaths due to military activities, 3,700 Dutch serving in the German military, 104,000 deported Jews and 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944. The official statistics also reported an additional 70,000 "indirect war casualties", which are attributed to various diseases caused by wartime conditions. Not included in these figures are an additional 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the Dutch Merchant Marine

    At least 3,121 civilian members of various Dutch resistance groups were killed during the occupation, on this page they are included under military casualties. On this page the losses of the 3,700 Dutch in the German Armed Forces are not considered Dutch war casualties, they are included with the military of Germany.

    The Dutch suffered additional losses in the Far East which were not included in the CBS figures except for the Navy. Military losses in Asia were 900 in the 1942 Dutch East Indies campaign and 8,500 military POW deaths in Japanese captivity. . The Australian War Memorialmarker website reports 8,000 of the 37,0000 Dutch POW died in Japanese captivity[33042]. Civilian losses in Asia reported by the Dutch Red Cross included the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 Europeans out of 80,000 interned in the Dutch East Indiesmarker.

    The Netherlands War Graves Foundation maintains a registry of the names of Dutch war dead. [33043] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.
  39. Newfoundland
    Newfoundland's losses are listed separately since it was not part of Canada during World War II.

    Military losses were 1,058: with 956 with the UK: Navy(351),Army (115),Air Force (134) and Merchant Navy (356) and 102 with Canada: Navy (21), Army(41) and Air Force (40).

    Source: [33044].

    The losses of the Newfoundland Merchant Navy are commemorated at the Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland,[33045].

    Civilian due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942[33046].
  40. New Zealand

    The New Zealand government reported 11,928 total militray war dead, mostly fighting in Europe. [33047] The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,928 . The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33048] Details can be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project[33049]The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.
  41. Norway

    Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces and 1,000 resistance fighters. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine. Total does not include 700 deaths with German Armed Forces. The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle. [33050] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.
  42. Pacific Islands

    - This territory includes areas now known as the Marshall Islandsmarker, Micronesiamarker, Palaumarker, and the Northern Mariana Islandsmarker.

    The estimate by R. J. Rummel of the number of victims due to Japanese war crimes on the various Pacific Islands is 57,000.

    The plight of the civilian population of Micronesia was the subject of a study published by the University of Hawaii, The Typhoon of War. They reported Micronesian war related civilian deaths were caused by American bombing and shellfire; and malnutrition caused by the U.S. blockade of the islands. In addition the civilian population was conscripted by the Japanese as forced laborers and were subjected to numerous mindless atrocities by the Japanese military.

    During the Battle of Guam the number of Chamorro people killed or wounded is not accurately known but it was well over six hundred. , During the Battle of Saipan 10,000 persons perished in a mass suicide of the Japanese civilian population.
  43. Papua New Guineamarker

    Civilian deaths were caused by Allied bombing and shellfire and Japanese atrocities.
    Both the Allies and Japanese also conscripted civilians to work as laborers and porters.
  44. Philippines

    Sources for total Philipino civilian war dead range from 500,000 to 1,000,000 as detailed below.

    The United States State Dept. has reported that, In total, an estimated one million Filipinos lost their lives in the war The primary reason for this high death toll was war related famine and disease. Civilian losses included victims of Japanese war crimes, such as those inflicted on comfort women as well as the Bataan Death March. The Manila massacre claimed the lives of 90,000 Filipinos. . Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 500,000 ( 141,000 massacred, 22,500 forced labor deaths and 336,500 deaths due war related famine).

    The estimate in 1946 by the U.S. War Dept. for Filipino military war dead was 27,260. Michael Clodfelter presents more recent figures for military war dead, including 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines , 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity . Werner Gruhl estimates an 27,000 Filiipinos died serving in the military (including 20,000 POW)
  45. Poland

    Total Polish War Dead.In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers put the figure of Poland’s dead at between 5.62 million and 5.82 million. The IPN report estimated, between 5.47 million and 5.67 million Polish citizens died at the hands of the Nazis. Some 150,000 perished under the Soviets. The IPN's figures include 3 million Polish Jews, who perished in Nazi Germany's Holocaust , as well as non-Jewish Poles and other ethnic groups (Ukrainians and Belarussians)

    The official estimate made in 1947 of 6.0 million war dead has been disputed by Polish scholars since the end of communist rule in 1989. They maintain that the official statistics include those persons who were listed as missing in 1945, but remained abroad in the west and the USSR after the war. . Czesław Łuczak estimated the actual total of war dead to be 4.9 to 5.0 million, including 2.9 to 3.0 million Jews. He estimated the number of ethnic Poles who perished at 2.0 million, including 1.5 million, due to the German occupation of the territory of modern day Poland and the balance of 500,000 in the former eastern Polish regions under both Soviet and German occupation. Łuczak did not include in his figures an estimate for the war dead of Polish citizens from the ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian groups which comprised about 20% of the 1939 Polish population. - Dr. Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated in 2005 Poland’s losses in World War Two to be 5.6 million; including 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and the Holocaust, 350,000deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians

    Civilian losses by geographic area [33051] were about 3.5 million in present day Poland and about 1.5 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union Contemporary Russian sources also include Poland's losses in the annexed territories with Soviet war deaths. . The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war victims during the German occupation (including 123,178 military deaths, 2.8 million Poles and 3.2 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Losses were calculated for the territory of Poland in 1939, including the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R. . This report has been disputed by Polish scholars since the end of communism rule in 1989 who put the total actual losses at about 5.0 million. This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journals Dzieje Najnowsze . and The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs The United States Holocaust Memorial Museummarker has reported that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war", .
    The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 3,000,000 , including 2 million within the borders of contemporary Poland and 1 million in the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R , ,

    Polish Losses during the Soviet Occupation (1939-1941)

    In 1987 Franciszek Proch from the Polish Association of Former Political Prisoners of Nazi and Soviet Concentration Camps estimated the total dead due to the Soviet occupation at 1,050,000. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation. Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90-100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets. In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000

    Poland's Military Losses

    Poland lost a total of 239,800 regular soldiers and Polish resistance movement fighters during the war. . Military dead and missing were 95,000-97,000 and 130,000 wounded in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, including 17-19,000 killed by the Soviets in the Katyn massacremarker and 12,000 in German POW camps. . The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st Polish Army fighting under Soviet command. Total casualties of these forces in exile were 33,256 killed in action, 8,548 missing in action, 42,666 wounded and 29,385 interned. The Polish Red Cross reported that the 1944 Warsaw Uprising cost the lives of 120,000 -130,000 Polish civilians and 16-17,000 Polish resistance movement fighters . The names of Polish war dead are presented at a database online [33052]

    During the war 2,762,000 Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A German source lists the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces , these men were conscripted in violation of international law
  46. Timor

    Officially neutral, East Timormarker was occupied by Japan during 1942-45.
    Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population. The civilian death toll is estimated at 40,000 to 70,000 Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" (Access date: January 3, 2007.)
  47. Romania

    Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000 . Total Killed were 93,326 ( 72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with allies) Total POW deaths of about 215,000; (200,000 in Soviet captivity and 15,000 in German captivity . Soviet sources list the deaths of 54,600 of the 201,800 Romanian POW taken in the War. Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead in Hungarian Army.

    Civilian losses of 64,000 included 20,000 during Soviet occupation of Bessarabiamarker and Bukovina in 1940-41 ; the genocide of Roma people 36,000 deaths.
    ; Allied air raids on Romania caused the deaths of 7,693 civilians .

    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 in 1939 borders which includes 325,000 in Bessarabiamarker and Bukovina occupied by the U.S.S.R. in 1940.[33053].
  48. Singapore

    Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre
  49. South Africa

    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,903 . The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33054]The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.
  50. Soviet Union

    Military Losses

    Military losses from 1939-1945, totaling 10.7 million, include 7.7 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead, out of 5.7 million total POW captured, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses.
    The official Russian Ministry of Defense figure for military deaths from 1941-1945 is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action or died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes plus an estimated 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 POW dead out of 4,059,000 total POW captured Richard Overy has noted that " The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted". The official Russian statistics for military dead do not include an additional estimated 1,500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed before being listed on active strength, as well as an estimated 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead, which are considered civilian war losses in the official figures.

    There were additional casualties in 1939-40, which totaled 136,945: Battle of Khalkhin Golmarker in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); and the Winter War with Finland (1939-40) (126,875).


    The estimate by western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands[33055]. Total Soviet population losses included approximately 12 million men aged 18 to 39. The names of many Soviet war dead are presented in the OBD Memorial database online [33056]

    Total Population Losses of the Soviet Union 1941-1945 A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993 estimated that the total Soviet population losses from 1941-1945, within Soviet borders of 1946-1991, were 26.6 million out of a total population of 196.7 million, which included the annexed territories. . Civilian deaths listed here of 12.4 million are for USSR within 1939 borders only, [33057] and do not include an estimated 2.5 million civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1945 and the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces. - . Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states(600,000) , Poland(1,500,000) and Romania(300,000) . Total Soviet war dead include losses include an estimated 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans . Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946-47 are not included with World War II casualties.

    Soviet Era Statistics for War Losses


    The deaths of 8.2 million Soviet civilians, including Jews, were documented from 1942-1946 by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission . The official Soviet era statistics for war losses list 25.3 million war related deaths. Total military losses of 8.7 million dead which includes 1.8 million missing in action and POW deaths out of 4.0 million total POW captured. Soviet sources reported civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR totaling 13.7 million, which includes 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. There were an additional estimated 3.0 million famine deaths in the territory not under German occupation. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939-40 Documents from the Soviet archives list the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637. . An independent Russian journalist believes the actual death toll may be as high as 1.7 million, when one takes into account summary executions and deaths of those forcibly deported during the war..

    Total Soviet military dead from 1941-45, including partisans & militia, of the individual Soviet republics were 10.5 million
    :

    Russia 6,750,000 ; Armenia 150,000 ; Azerbaijan 210,000 ; Belarus 620,000 ; Georgia 190,000 ; Moldova 41,000 ; Ukraine 1,620,000 ; Estonia 13,000 ; Latvia 18,000 ; Lithuania 27,000 ; Kazakhstan 310,000 ; Kyrgyzstan 70,000 ; Tajikistan 50,000 ; Turkmenistan 70,000 ; Uzbekistan 330,000.

    Total war related civilian deaths, including territories annexed 1939-45, of the individual Soviet republics were 15.7 million :

    Russia 7,200,000 ; Armenia 30,000 ; Azerbaijan 110,000 ; Belarus 1,670,000 ; Georgia 110,000; Moldova 120,000 ; Ukraine 5,200,000 ; Estonia 35,000 ; Latvia 220,000 ; Lithuania 345,000 ; Kazakhstan 350,000 ; Kyrgyzstan 50,000 ; Tajikistan 70,000 ; Turkmenistan 30,000 ; Uzbekistan 220,000.

    The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims, within 1939 borders, totaled 1,000,000.
  51. Spain

    Military deaths were of volunteer soldiers from the all Spanish Blue Division serving alongside Germany Army in the U.S.S.Rmarker.
    The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943. . R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.
  52. Sweden

    During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 117 men in combat (combined Swedish losses in Finland between 1939-45) [33058]. About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30-45 were killed in action. [33059]

    33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine HMS Ulven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.

    187 Swedish merchant marine crew were killed by Soviet submarine attacks.[33060] Immediately following the outbreak of the Second World War, Sweden concluded war-trade agreements with Great Britain and Germany, which anticipated largely unchanged trade with both sides during the conflict., in all there were 226 sailings to and 222 sailings from Sweden within the framework of the war-trade agreements . Nine ships were lost, claiming the lives of 142 men. [33061]

    In total there were about 2000 Swedish casualties in the merchant and fishing marine, with probably several more as many Swedes served in other countries navies, and casualties amongst them has not been investigated. In total 201 Swedish merchant ships and 31 fishing vessels were sunk [33062].
  53. Switzerland

    The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties. [33063]-[33064]Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.
  54. Thailand

    Military deaths in French-Thai War 1940-41, the Japanese invasion, and Burma Campaign 1942-45. Civilian deaths caused by Allied bombing 1944-45. Military deaths consists of 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, 4942 other ranks, and 88 field policemen. Royal Thai Armed Forces Education Department Werner Gruhl believes that Thailand suffered "to a lesser extent" than other nations but did not provide exact figures for estimated losses.
  55. United Kingdom and Colonies

    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.Total military deaths were 383,677, including Newfoundland The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [33065] The losses of Newfoundlandmarker (1,000 military) are included in these figures but are listed separately on this schedule. [33066]

    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission maintains a Roll of Honour of those civilians under Crown Protection who died as a result of enemy actions in the Second World War. The names of 67.073 are commemorated in the Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour.

    UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces which are the topic of the following BBC article- [33067]. UK colonial forces included units from East Africa, West Africa,Ghana, the Caribbean, Malaya, Burma, Hong Kong, Jordan, Sudan, Malta and the Jewish Brigade

    The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard ( 1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18); Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0). These figures included the losses of Newfoundlandmarker and Southern Rhodesiamarker. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was unknown at that time. The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.
  56. United States

    Total U. S. military deaths in battle and from other causes were 416,837 The breakout by service is as follows, Army 318,274 , Navy 62,614, , Marine Corps 24,511 , United States Coast Guard 1,917. . and United States Merchant Marine 9,521. . Deaths in battle were 292,131 The breakout by service is as follows, Army 234, 874 , Navy 36,950, , Marine Corps 19,733 , United States Coast Guard 574. [33068] . These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben Jamesmarker were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 52,173 deaths due to combat and 35,946 from non combat causes .U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war - Europe-Atlantic 183,588; Army ground forces 141,088; United States Army Air Forces 36,461 and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039; Asia-Pacific 108,504; Army ground forces 41,592; United States Army Air Forces 15,694; Navy/Coast Guard 31,485; Marine Corps 19,733. Unidentified Theatres- Army 39 . Included in combat deaths are 14,059 POWs, in Europe (1,124) and (12,935) in Asia .

    The details of U.S. casualties are listed online: The US Army[33069]. The U.S. Army Air Force [33070]. The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps [33071]. The U.S. Merchant Marine [33072]

    Civilian dead were 1,704 American civilians interned, by the Japanese(1,536) and in Europe (168), which are the subject of a U.S. Congressional Research Service report. Go to page CRS-11[33073]. During the Attack on Pearl Harbormarker 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs .

    The names of individual U.S. military personnel killed in World War II can be found at the U.S. National Archives website [33074]

    The names of U.S. Merchant Mariners killed in World War II can be found at the USMM website [33075]

    The names of the 6,043 US military personnel buried at sea, during World War II, are listed at[33076] {broken down as US Army 368; US Army Air Forces 33; USMC 1,042; US Navy 4,600}.

    The names of the 74,384 of the US personnel, who served in World War II, whose remains not recovered are listed at [33077] {Broken down as US Army 17,096; US Army Air Forces 20,683; USMC 3,119; US Navy 32,636; Civilians 850}.

    American Battle Monuments Commission
    website lists the names of 176,399 military and civilian war dead from World War II buried in ABMC cemeteries or listed on Walls of the Missing {ABMC Cemeteries have 93,238 buried and 78,979 MIA} [33078]

    {Note: the ABMC website notes ABMC database does not list names of 233,174 Americans returned to the United States for burial}. A U.S. Department of Defense report puts in the total number of US World War II missing at 73,291 [33079]

    .Examples of non combat casualties within the continental United States-not listed on the ABMC website-were the Port Chicago explosionmarker where 320 were killed and the Women Airforce Service Pilots of whom 38 lost their lives.
    "Project Priam" website lists Pacific Allied/Axis recoveries from 1958 to 2007.

    See[33080]
  57. Yugoslavia

    The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954 that concluded that Yugoslav war related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated without the benefit of a postwar census" A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000. Military losses of 237,000 Yugoslav partisans and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000. . Bogoljub Kočović a statistician, who is a Bosnian Serb by ethnic affiliation, calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000 The late Jozo Tomasevich , Professor Emeritus of Economics at San Francisco State University, believes that the calculations of Kočović and Žerjavić “ seem to be free of bias, we can accept them as reliable”

    The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows:

    A.Military operations between the Germans, Italians and their Ustaše collaborators on one hand against the Yugoslav partisans and Chetniks

    B.German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch One of the worst massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.

    C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war Ustaše collaborators were killed during the Bleiburg massacre D.The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs The USHMMmarker reports between 56,000 and 97,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration campmarker . However, Yad Vashemmarker reports 600,000 deaths at Jasenovacmarker. . The genocide of Roma was 40,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122. :

    E.The reduced food supply caused famine and disease. :

    F.Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgoricamarker, Leskovacmarker, Zadarmarker and Belgrademarker. :

    G. The demographic losses due to a 335,000 reduction in the number of births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.


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