Xinjiang ( ; ; ; Postal map spelling:
Sinkiang) is an autonomous region
(Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) of the
Republic of China.
Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as
Uyghuristan. More specifically, at times, the term East
Turkestan only referred to the Xinjiang area south of the Tian Shan mountains, North of the Tian Shan was called
The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many other names
in earlier times including: 西域 (Mandarin: xiyu) = 'Western
Regions', Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay,
Mugholistan, Kashgaria, Altishahr ('the six cities' of the Tarim),
Little Bokhara and Serindia.
"Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" , was given during
In the early part of the Qing Dynasty, the
name "Xinjiang" was used to refer to any area of former a Chinese
empire that had been previously lost but was regained by the
Qing—for example, part of present-day Xinjiang was known as
"Western Region xinjiang
", present-day Jinchuan County
was known as "Jinchuan
", etc. After 1821, the Qing changed the names of
the other regained regions, and "Xinjiang" became the name
specifically of present-day Xinjiang.
is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million
km2 (comparable in size to Iran or Western Europe), which takes up about one
sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the
Tibet Autonomous Region and
India's Leh District to the
south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to
the southeast, Mongolia to the east,
Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India to the
west. It administers most of Aksai Chin, a territory formally part of Kashmir's Ladakh region over
which India has claimed
sovereignty since 1962.
The east-west chain of the Tian Shan Mountains separate Dzungaria
in the north from the Tarim Basin
in the south. Dzungaria is dry
steppe. The Tarim Basin is desert surrounded by oases. In the east is the
Depression. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the
According to J.P. Mallory, the Chinese sources describe the
existence of "white people
hair" or the Bai
people in the Shan Hai Jing
, who lived beyond their
well-preserved Tarim mummies with
Caucasoid features, often with
reddish or blond hair, today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and
dated to the 3rd century BC, have been found in precisely the same
area of the Tarim Basin. Various nomadic tribes, such as the Yuezhi were part of the large migration of Indo-European speaking peoples who
were settled in eastern Central Asia
(possibly as far as Gansu) at that
The Ordos culture
situated at northern China east of the Yuezhi, are another
Nomadic cultures such as the Yuezhi are documented in the area of
Xinjiang where the first known reference to the Yuezhi was made in
645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong
管子(Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80:
81). He described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the
north-west who supplied jade
to the Chinese
from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu. The supply of jade
from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is indeed well documented
archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had
a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the
tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty,
more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern
As early as the mid-first millennium BC the Yuezhi
engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the
rulers of agricultural China.".
The nomadic tribes of the Yuezhi are also documented in detail in
Chinese historical accounts, in particular the 2nd-1st century BC
"Records of the Great Historian", or Shiji
, by Sima Qian
which state that they "were flourishing" but regularly in conflict
with the neighboring tribe of the Xiongnu to the northeast.
According to these accounts:
The Yuezhi originally lived in the area
between the Qilian or Heavenly Mountains
Shan) and Dunhuang, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu they moved far away to the west, beyond
Dayuan, where they attacked and conquered the
people of Daxia and set up the court of their
king on the northern bank of the Gui [= Oxus]
A small number of their people who were unable to make
the journey west sought refuge among the Qiang barbarians in the Southern Mountains,
where they are known as the Lesser Yuezhi.
Struggle between Xiongnu and Han China
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd
Traversed by the Northern Silk
, Western Regions
Xinjiang is the Chinese name for the Tarim
regions of what is now northwest
the beginning of the Han Dynasty (206 BC
– AD 220), the region was subservient to the Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people based in modern
In the 2nd century BC, Han China sent
as an envoy to the states in
the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the
Xiongnu and Han China over dominance of the region, eventually
ending in Chinese success. In 60 BC Han China established the Protectorate of the Western
Regions (西域都護府) at Wulei (烏壘; near modern Luntai) to oversee the entire region as far west as the
During the usurpation of Wang Mang
China, the dependent states of the protectorate rebelled and
returned to domination in AD 13. Over the next century, Han China
conducted several expeditions into the region, re-establishing the
protectorate from 74 to 76, 91 to 107, and from 123 onward. After
the fall of the Han Dynasty, the protectorate continued to be
maintained by Cao Wei
(until 265) and the
Western Jin Dynasty
A summary of Classical sources on the Seres
(Greek and Roman name of Xinjiang) (essentially Pliny
gives the following account:
Ptolemy had quite good information on Xinjiang, taken from three
A succession of peoples
The Western Jin Dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions
by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The
short-lived kingdoms (both Han and non-Han) that ruled northwestern
China one after the other, including Former
, Former Qin
, Later Liang
, and Western Liáng
, all attempted to maintain
the protectorate, with varying extents and degrees of success.
After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei
empire, its protectorate
controlled what is now the southeastern third of Xinjiang.
states such as Shule, Yutian, Guizi and Qiemo controlled
the western half, while the central region around Turpan was
controlled by Gaochang, remnants of a state (Northern Liang) that once ruled part of what
is now Gansu province in
Tang Dynasty and the Khanates
The Tang Dynasty
was established in
618, and would prove to be one of the most expansionist dynasties
in Chinese history. Starting from the 620's and 630's, Tang China
conducted a series of expeditions against the Turks, eventually
forcing the surrender of the western Turks in 657. Xinjiang was
placed under the Anxi Protectorate
(安西都護府; "Protectorate Pacifying the West"). The protectorate did
not outlast the decline of Tang China in the 8th century.
the devastating Anshi Rebellion,
Tibet invaded Tang China on a wide front from
Xinjiang to Yunnan, occupied
the Tang capital Chang'an in 763 for 16 days, and taking control of
southern Xinjiang by the end of the century.
At the same
time, the Uyghur Khaganate
control of northern Xinjiang, as well as much of the rest of
Central Asia, including Mongolia.
Both Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate declined in the mid-9th
century. The Kara-Khanid
, which arose from a confederation of Turkic tribes
scattered after the destruction of the Uyghur empire, took control
of western Xinjiang in the 10th century and the 11th century.
Meanwhile, after the Uyghur khanate in Mongolia had been smashed by
the Kirghiz, branches of the Uyghurs
established themselves in the area around today's Turpan and
Urumchi in 840. This Uyghur state would remain in eastern Xinjiang
until the 13th century, though it would be subject to various
overlords during that time. Some scholars have argued, that the
Kara-Khanids were likewise "Uyghurs," as some of the components in
the Kara-Khanid federation were likewise from the ruling clans of
the Uyghur empire. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam
, whereas the Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang
remained Manicheaean, while tolerating Buddhism
In 1132, remnants of the Khitan Empire
entered Xinjiang, fleeing
the onslaught of the Jurchens
China. They established an exile regime, the Kara-Khitan Khanate
, which became
overlord over both Kara-Khanid-held and Uyghur-held parts of the
Tarim Basin for the next century.
Arrival of the Mongols
After Genghis Khan
had unified Mongolia
and began his advance west, the Uyghur state in the Turpan-Urumchi
area offered its allegiance to the Mongols in 1209, contributing
taxes and troops to the Mongol imperial effort. In return, the
Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom. By contrast,
Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire
in 1218. Because the
Kara-Khitan had persecuted Islam, the Mongols were met as
liberators in the Kashgar area. During the civil war of the Mongol Empire,
the Empire of
the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty) vied for rule with the Chagatai Khanate in the area.
the break-up of the Mongol Empire into smaller khanates the region
fractured and was ruled by various different Persianized Mongol
Khans simultaneously, including the ones of Mogholistan (with the
assistance of the local Dughlat Emirs), Uigurstan (later Turpan)
and Kashgaria. These leaders engaged in numerous wars with each
other and both the Timurid
to the West and the Western Mongols
to the East, the successor
regime based in Mongolia and in
China. Although there were high points in Persian culture reached
(e.g. the Dughlat historian Hamid-mirza), succession crises and
internal divisions (Kashgaria split in two for centuries) meant
that this region almost completely fades from the history books
during the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 17th century, the Mongolian Dzungars established an
empire over much of the region.
Dzungar (also Jungar, Zunghar or Zungar; Mongolian: Зүүнгар
Züüngar) is the collective identity of several Oirat
tribes that formed and maintained one of the
last nomadic empires. The Dzungar
Khanate covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from
the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern
Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of this area is renamed to Xinjiang after
fall the Dzungar Empire).
It existed from the early 17th
century to the mid-18th century.
Qing, established by the Manchus
in China, gained control over eastern Xinjiang as a result of a
long struggle with the Zunghars (Dzungars) that began in the
seventeenth century. In 1755, the Qing attacked Ghulja, and
captured the Zunghar khan.
Over the next two years, the
Manchus and Mongol armies of the Qing destroyed the remnants of the
The Dzungars were deliberately exterminated in a brutal campaign of
. One writer, Wei Yuan
, described the resulting desolation in
what is now northern Xinjiang as: "an empty plain for a thousand
, with no trace of man." It has been estimated that more
than a million people were slaughtered, and it took generations for
it to recover.
After the defeat and extermination of the Dzungars, the Qing
attempted to divide the Xinjiang region into four sub-khanates
under four chiefs. Similarly, the Qing made members of a clan of
sufi shaykhs known as the Khojas, rulers in the western Tarim
Basin, south of the Tianshan Mts. In 1758–59, however, rebellions against
this arrangement broke out both north and south of the Tian Shan mountains.
The Qing was thus forced,
contrary to its initial intent, to establish a form of direct
military rule over both Zungharia (northern Xinjiang) and the Tarim
Basin (southern Xinjiang). The Manchus put the whole region under the
rule of a General of Ili ( ), headquartered at the fort of Huiyuan (the so-called "Manchu Kuldja", or Yili),
30 km west of Ghulja
After 1759 state farms were established, "especially in the
vicinity of Urumchi, where there was fertile, well-watered land and
few people." From 1760 to 1830 more state farms were opened and the
Chinese population in Xinjiang grew rapidly to about 155,000.
mid-19th century, the Russian Empire was encroaching upon Qing China along its entire
The Opium Wars and Taiping and other
rebellion's in China proper
had severely restricted the dynasty's ability to maintain its
garrisons in distant Xinjiang. In 1864 both Chinese Muslims (Hui) and Uyghurs rebelled
in Xinjiang cities, following an on-going Chinese Muslim Rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces further east.
Because all of the
non-Muslim population in Xinjiang were regarded as infidels and
enemies to be exterminated, the rebellion resulted in incredible
cruelties whenever the towns held by the Qing force were taken.
Yaqub Beg, a warlord from the neighbouring
Kokand, entered Xinjiang via Kashgar, and conquered nearly
all of Xinjiang over the next six years. In 1871, Russia took
advantage of the chaotic situation and seized the rich Ili River valley, including Gulja.
Qing China held onto only a few strongholds, including Tacheng.
Yaqub Beg's rule lasted until General Zuo
(also known as General Tso) reconquered the region
between 1875 and 1877 for Qing China. In 1881, Qing China recovered
the Gulja region through diplomatic negotiations (Treaty of Saint Petersburg
In 1884, (1882 according to some sources), Qing China established
Xinjiang ("new frontier") as a province, formally applying onto it
the political system of China proper
, and dropping the old
name of Huijiang or 'Muslimland'.
Republic of China and First East Turkestan Republic
the Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua
The PRC government prohibits using the flag in the
last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates
(杨增新), took control of the
province and acceded in name to the Republic of China in March of
the same year. Through Machiavellian politics and clever balancing
of mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang maintained control over
Xinjiang until his assassination in 1928.
Multiple insurgencies arose against his successor Jin Shuren
(金树仁) in the early 1930s throughout
Xinjiang, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups, Russians and Hui
(Muslim) Chinese. In the Kashgar region on 12 November 1933, the
short-lived self-proclaimed East Turkistan Republic
declared, after some debate over whether the proposed independent
state should be called "East Turkestan" or "Uyghuristan."
claimed authority over territory stretching from Aksu along the northern rim of the Tarim Basin to Khotan in the
south. Xinjiang was eventually brought in 1934
under the control of northeast Chinese warlord Sheng Shicai (盛世才), who ruled Xinjiang for the
next decade with close support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies Sheng
instituted in Xinjiang.
Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists
to Xinjiang, including
's brother Mao Zemin
, but in 1943, fearing a conspiracy,
Sheng executed them all, including Mao Zemin.
2nd ETR existed in what is now Ili,
Tarbagatay and Altay Districts of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
of People's Republic of China
Second East Turkestan Republic and People's Republic of
Second East Turkistan
Republic (2nd ETR, also known as the Three Districts Revolution)
existed from 1944 to 1949 with Soviet support in
what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous
Prefecture (Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay Districts) in northern
The Second East Turkistan Republic came to an end
when the People's Liberation
(PLA) entered Xinjiang in 1949. Also, five ETR leaders,
who would negotiate the final status of East Turkistan with the
Chinese, died in an air crash in 1949 in Kazakh airspace.
According to the PRC interpretation, the 2nd ETR was Xinjiang's
revolution, a positive part of the communist revolution in China;
the 2nd ETR acceded to and welcomed the PLA when it entered
Xinjiang, a process known as the Peaceful Liberation of
. However, independence advocates view the ETR as an
effort to establish an independent state, and the subsequent PLA
entry as an invasion.
The autonomous region of the PRC was established on 1 October 1955,
replacing the province. The PRC's first nuclear test was carried out at Lop Nur, Xinjiang, on 16 October 1964.
reports in western media report that between 100,000 and 200,000
people may have been killed in the testing, the Lop Nur area has
not been permanently inhabited since about 1920 and PRC media
dispute these numbers, but without providing an alternate
The numbers of ethnic Han
Xinjiang has risen from less than half a million in 1953 to 7.5
million by 2000.
News media reports of ethnic tensions in the region with resultant
conflicts between the Uyghur plurality and Chinese authorities have
raised worldwide awareness about Uyghur people and Xinjiang. These
tensions actually began decades ago, and there have been several
waves of protest in the region. Since 1996 the Chinese authorities
have carried out a harsh crackdown of the East Turkestan independence
, which it labels as "separatists" and "religious
extremists" throughout the XUAR. Furthermore, the US and the UN
have labeled a group called East Turkestan Islamic
a terrorist group.
Independence advocates view Chinese rule in Xinjiang, and policies
like the Xinjiang Production
and Construction Corps
as Chinese imperialism
The tensions have occasionally resulted in major incidents and
violent clashes during the PRC period. For example, in 1962,
60,000 Uyghur and Kazak refugees fled northern Xinjiang into the
Union to escape the Great
Chinese Famine and political purges of the Great Leap Forward era; in the 1980s
there was a smattering of student demonstrations and riots against
police action that took on an ethnic aspect; and the Baren Township riot in April, 1990, an
abortive uprising, resulted in more than 50 deaths.
A police roundup of suspected separatists during the Muslim holy
resulted in large
demonstrations that turned violent in February 1997 in an episode
known as the Ghulja / Yining
(or Gulja Massacre) that led to at least 9 deaths. The
Urumqi bus bombs
of 25 February
1997, perhaps a response to the crackdown that followed the Ghulja
Incident, killed 9 and injured 68. Despite much talk of separatism
in Xinjiang, the situation in Xinjiang was largely quiet from 2000
Then, on 5 January 2007 the Chinese Public Security Bureau raided a
suspected terrorist training camp in the mountains near the Pamir
Plateau in southern Xinjiang. According to the reports, 18
individuals, whom Chinese State media refers to as "terrorists,"
were killed and another 17 captured in a gun battle between the
ETIM and PRC forces. One police officer was killed and "over 1,500
hand grenades... were seized." The report leaves it unclear whether
the acronym ETIM stands for the East Turkestan Independence
, the Xinjiang pro independence part, or the East Turkestan Islamic
, an (alleged) militant separatist group, and Rafael
Poch, a Spanish journalist, after investigating the incident and
checking with alleged witnesses, concluded that there did not exist
any "terrorist training camp".
In the run-up to the Summer
in Beijing, during which world attention was drawn by
pro-Tibet protests along the Olympic torch relay
separatist groups staged protests in several countries. According
to the Chinese government, a suicide bombing attempt on a China
Southern Airlines flight in Xinjiang was thwarted in March 2008. On
4 August 2008, 4 days before the Beijing Olympics, 16 Chinese
police officers were killed and 16 were injured by riots and an
explosion during the crackdown on separatist groups that took place
before the games.Chinese police injured and damaged the equipment
of two Japanese journalists sent to cover the story.
Map of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous
Xinjiang is divided into two prefecture-level cities
, and five autonomous
prefectures. (Two of the seven prefectures are in turn part of Ili,
an autonomous prefecture.) These are then divided into eleven
districts, twenty county-level cities, sixty-two counties, and six
autonomous counties. Four of the county-level cities do not belong
to any prefecture, and are de facto
administered by the
Production and Construction Corps
. Sub-level divisions of the
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is shown in the picture to the
right, and described in the table below:
Geography and geology
Close to Karakoram Highway in
Xinjiang is the largest political subdivision of
—it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total
territory and a quarter of its boundary length. It is split by the
Shan mountain range ( ), which divides it into two large
basins: the Dzungarian Basin in the
north, and the Tarim Basin in the
south. Much of the Tarim Basin is dominated by the
Desert. The lowest point in Xinjiang, and in the
entire PRC, is the Turpan Depression, 155 metres below sea level; its highest point is
the mountain K2, 8611 metres above sea level, on the border
with Pakistan. Other mountain ranges include the Pamir
Mountains in the
southeast, the Karakoram in the south, and the Altai Mountains in the north.
Xinjiang is young geologically, having been formed from the
collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, forming the
Shan, and Pamir mountain
Consequently, Xinjiang is a major earthquake
zone. Older geological formations occur
principally in the far north where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east which is part of the North China Craton.
Xinjiang has within its borders the point of land remotest from the
sea, the so-called Eurasian
pole of inaccessibility
( ) in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert
miles (2648 km) from the nearest coastline (straight-line
Shan mountain range marks the Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border
at the Torugart
Pass (3752 m). The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass.
List of Secretaries of the CPC
- Wang Zhen (王震): 1949–1952
- Wang Enmao (王恩茂): 1952–1967
- Long Shujin (龙书金): 1970–1972
- Seypidin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜):
- Wang Feng (汪锋): 1978–1981
- Wang Enmao (王恩茂): 1981–1985
- Song Hanliang (宋汉良):
- Wang Lequan (王乐泉):
List of Chairmen of Xinjiang Government
- Seypidin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜):
- Long Shujin (龙书金): 1968–1972
- Seypidin Azizi: 1972–1978
- Wang Feng (汪锋): 1978–1979
- Ismail Amet (司马义·艾买提):
- Tomur Dawamat (铁木尔·达瓦买提):
- Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit
- Ismail Tiliwaldi (司马义·铁力瓦尔地):
- Nur Bekri (努尔·白克力):
Xinjiang is known for its fruits and produce, including grapes
. Xinjiang also
has large deposits of minerals and oil
In the late 19th century the region was noted for producing salt,
, gold, jade
Xinjiang's nominal GDP
was approximately 220
(28 billion USD) in 2004, and
increased to 420 billion RMB (60 billion USD) in 2008, due to the
China Western Development
policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic
development in Western China. Its per capita GDP for 2008 was
19,893 RMB (2,864 USD).
gas extraction industry in Aksu and
Karamay is booming, with the West–East Gas Pipeline
connecting to Shanghai.
The oil and petrochemical sector
account for 60% of Xinjiang's local economy.
Xinjiang's exports amounted to 19.3 billion USD
while imports turned out to be 2.9 billion USD in 2008.
the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and
from Kazakhstan through Ala Pass.
China's first border free
trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the
Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos. Horgos is the largest
land port in China's western region and it has easy access to the
Central Asian market. Xinjiang will also open its second border
trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade
Economic and Technological Development Zones
- Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area
- Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation Area (Chinese Version)
- Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation Area
- Urumqi Economic & Technological Development Zone (Chinese
- Urumqi Export Processing Zone
- Urumqi New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Yining Border Economic Cooperation Area
The languages of Xinjang
East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin
about 3,000 years ago, while the
Uighur peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur
Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, around the year 842.
Xinjiang is home to several distinct ethnic groups of various
religious traditions; however, the majority of the region's total
population are adherents of Islam
ethnic groups who are of the Muslim faith, most notable are Muslim
including the Uyghurs
; there are also Muslim Iranian peoples
and the Sarikolis
conflated as Pamiris
); and Muslim Sino-Tibetan peoples
such as the
. Other PRC ethnic groups
in the region
include Han, Mongols
said in 1896:
"The present inhabitants of Eastern Turkestan are more like
Europeans than any other Asiatics I have seen.
Blue eyes, curly hair and red beards are common among them."
The population of Xinjiang was estimated to be about 1,180,000 in
1880 rising sharply after that, due largely to "emigrations and
banishments from China."
The percentage of ethnic Han in Xinjiang has grown from less than
7% in 1949 to an official tally of over 40% at present. This figure
does not include military personnel or their families, or the many
unregistered migrant workers. Much of this transformation can be
attributed to the Xinjiang Production
and Construction Corps
(XPCC), a semi-military organization of
settlers that has built farms, towns, and cities over scattered
parts of Xinjiang. The demographic transformation is held by Uyghur
independence advocates as a threat to Uyghurs and other non-Han
ethnicities in maintaining their culture. In 1953 about
three-fourths of the population lived south of the mountains in the
Tarim Basin and the Han influx was directed mainly to the
(north of the
mountains in the Tarim Basin) because of its resource potential.
The minorities of Xinjiang have been exempted from the one-child policy
and many Uyghur people
emigrated out of Xinjiang to
other parts of China, and consequently the percentage of Uyghur people
in the total population of China
has increased steadily. According to one source, more than 2% of
the population, most of them being members of Chinese house churches
, are Christians.
However, this can only be an estimate as there are no official
figures to work from. A Christian website called "Christian
Persecution Info", in a news item from February 12, 2008, states
that: "Only a handful of China’s estimated 10 million Uyghurs are
known to be Christians." The "Joshua Project website says: "Today
about 50 known Uygur Christians meet in two small fellowships in
China, although 400 Uygur believers have recently emerged in
general, Uyghurs are the majority in
western Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu, as well
as Turpan prefecture
in eastern Xinjiang. Han are the majority in eastern and northern
Xinjiang, including the cities of Urumqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changjyi, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the cit of Kuitun), and
Kumul. Kazakhs are mostly
concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang.
|Ethnic groups in Xinjiang, 2000
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active
|Mongols, Dongxiangs ,Daurs
Some Uighur scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uighurs and
the pre-Turkic Tocharians
whose language was Indo-European
), and relatively
fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid
' physical traits, are not uncommon among
them. In general Uyghurs resemble those peoples who live around
them in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and
Pakistan.In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%)
and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall
growth rate was 10.9‰, with 16.3‰ of birth
and 5.4‰ mortality
With a population of about 20 million and an officially estimated
60,000 infections, Xinjiang has one-tenth of China’s AIDS
cases and the highest HIV
infection rate in the country. Chinese authorities estimate that Kashgar
Prefecture, with a population of about three million, has 780
cases, but public health experts here say the real figure is
probably four times that and rising fast.
Until recently, addicts were largely left to the police, who
regarded them as simple criminals whose drug use was to be combated
mercilessly. Resistance to treating drug addiction as a public
health concern has been high, mirroring what some international
health experts say was, more generally, a slow response to HIV/AIDS in the
People's Republic of China
Networking Transmission Limited
operates the Urumqi People Broadcasting
and the Xinjiang People
, broadcasting in Mandarin
, there were fifty minority-language newspapers published in Xinjiang, including the Qapqal News, the world's only Xibe-language newspaper. The Xinjiang Economic Daily is considered one of China's most dynamic newspapers.
Xinjiang is home to the Xinjiang Guanghui Flying
professional basketball team of the Chinese Basketball
The capital, Urumqi, is also home to the Xinjiang University
baseball team, an
integrated Uyghur and Han group profiled in the documentary film,
Diamond in the Dunes
In 2008, according to the Xinjiang Transportation Network Plan, the
government has focused construction on State Road 314, Alar-Hotan
Desert Highway, State Road 218, Qingshui River Line-Yining Highway,
and State Road 217, as well as other roads.
The construction of the first expressway in the mountainous area of
Xinjiang began a new stage in its construction on 24 July 2007.
56 km highway linking Sayram Lake and Guozi Valley in
Northern Xinjiang area had cost 2.39 billion yuan.
expressway is designed to improve the speed of national highway 312
in northern Xinjiang. The project started in August 2006 and
several stages have been fully operational since March 2007. Over
3,000 construction workers have been involved. The 700 m-long Guozi
Valley Cable Bridge over the expressway is now currently being
constructed, with the 24 main pile foundations already completed.
Highway 312 national highway Xinjiang section, connects Xinjiang
with China's east coast, central and western Asia, plus some parts
of Europe. It is a key factor in Xinjiang's economic development
. The population it
covers is around 40 percent of the overall in Xinjiang, who
contribute half of the GDP in the area.
- Map of China 1900
- Hill (2009), pp. xviii, 60.
- Tyler (2003), p. 3.
- Origin of the Names of China's Provinces,
People's Daily Online.
- J.P. Mallory, The Tarim Mummies, pg.55, ISBN
0500051011. "The strange creatures of the Shanhai jing: (...) we
find recorded north of the territory of the "fish dragons" the land
of the Whites (Bai), whose bodies are white and whose long hair
falls on their shoulders. Such a description could accord well with
a Caucasoid population beyond the frontiers of ancient China and
some scholars have identified these Whites as Yuezhi."
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Saces, ISBN 2877723372,
- Michael Dillon, China: A Historical and Cultural
- Liu (2001), pp. 267–268
- Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian
of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the
Sima Qian. Chapter
123: "The Account of Dayuan," Columbia University Press. Revised Edition.
ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.), p. 234.
- E. de la Vaissière, "The triple system of orography in
Ptolemy's Xinjiang", in Exegisti monumenta Festschrift in
Honour of Nicholas Sims-Williams, Harrassowitz, 2009
- The Mummies of Xinjiang. DISCOVER Magazine. 1 April
- Millward (2007), p. 95
- Tyler (2003), p. 55
- Millward (2007), p. 104
- Ho-dong Kim(2004),p.71.
- Yakub Beg (Tajik adventurer). Britannica Online
- Mesny (1905), p. 5.
- Tyler (2003), p. 61.
- Governors of Xinjiang:Yang Zengxin (1912–1928), Jin Shuren
(1928–33), Sheng Shicai(1933–44) .
- R. Michael Feener, "Islam in World Cultures: Comparative
Perspectives", ABC-CLIO, 2004, ISBN 1576075168
- Did China's Nuclear Tests Kill Thousands and Doom
Future Generations?. Scientific American.
. Lop Nur. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November
27, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- China Youth Daily (Qingnian
Cankao or Elite Reference), August 7, 2009. Hard copy
article ( site).
- Xinjiang: China's 'other Tibet', 25 March 2008,
- Hierman, Brent. "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest
and the Chinese State, 1988-2002." Problems of Post-Communism,
May/Jun2007, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp 48–62
- Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland | S Frederick Starr| pp.
355–58 | M.E. Sharpe (June 2004)| ISBN 0765613182
- Un incidente en el Pamir (Spanish). Rafael Poch
on lavanguardia.es. Accessed 2009-07-27
- Elizabeth Van Wie Davis, " China confronts its Uyghur threat," Asia Times
Online, 18 April 2008.
- References and details on data provided in the table can be
found within the individual provincial articles.
- Zhōngguó dìmínglù 中国地名录 (Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú
chūbǎnshè 中国地图出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4.
- Mesny (1899), p. 386.
- A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's
celtic mummies. The Independent. 28 August 2006.
Rumbles on the Rim of China’s Empire
- Mesny (1896), p. 310.
- Mesny (1896), p. 272.
- Mesny (1899), p. 485.
- Michael Dillon(2004),p.24
- About Xinjiang Region. Language Documentation Center,
University of Hawai'i at Manoa 2008.
- Xinjiang (autonomous region, China). Britannica Online
- Johnstone, Patrick; Schirrmacher, Thomas (2003). Gebet für die
Welt. Hänssler. p. 267 ISBN 978-0813342757.
- 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料，民族出版社，2003/9 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
- Ili AP is composed of Kuitun DACLC, Tacheng Prefecture, Aletai
Prefecture, as well as former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has
been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by
- Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology
Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China
(国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the
State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds.
Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of
China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities
Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
- AIDS China, Avert.
- Beckwith, Christopher
I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central
Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton
University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
- Findley, Carter Vaughn. 2005. The Turks in World
History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516770-8;
- Hierman, Brent. "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest
and the Chinese State, 1988-2002." Problems of Post-Communism,
May/Jun2007, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp 48–62
- Mesny, William (1896) Mesny's Chinese Miscellany. Vol.
II. William Mesny. Shanghai.
- Mesny, William (1899) Mesny's Chinese Miscellany. Vol.
III. William Mesny. Shanghai.
- Mesny, William (1905) Mesny's Chinese Miscellany. Vol.
IV. William Mesny. Shanghai.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History
of Xinjiang. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN
978-0-231-13924. (European and Asian edition, London: Hurst, Co.,
- Tyler, Christian. (2003). Wild West China: The Untold Story
of a Frontier Land. John Murray, London. ISBN