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Yazd (pronounced /jæzd/) (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd provincemarker in Iranmarker, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahanmarker. In 2005 it had an estimated population of 433,836 people.[53649] In 2006 it had an estimated population of 505,037.[53650] Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweet shops.

Geography

Yazd with the area of 131,551km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavirmarker desert and the Dasht-e Lutmarker desert meet, the city is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuhmarker, the tallest mountain in the region at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq. The city itself is located at 1203 m. above sea-level, and covers 16,000 km².

According to the administrative division rules, the Yazd province is divided into 10 districts, each includes at least one town and a number of villages. These districts are: Abarkuh, Ardakan, Bafq, Khatam, Maybod, Mehriz, Tabas, Sadough, Taft and Yazd.
Various Yazd District
district area population cities villages
Abarkuh 5941 40000 2 4
Ardakan 6717 70000 2 5
Bafgh 15298 41000 2 6
Khatam 7931 32000 2 4
Mehriz 6717 74000 1 5
Sadough 5486 26300 3 3
Tabas 57337 63400 2 8
Taft 5948 56000 2 10
Yazd 2397 389000 4 4
Source:Geography Book of Yazd


The Mountains

  • southern and Southern West Mountains
This mountains are widest than other groups of mountains.The most important mountain in these mountains is Shir Kuh

  • Eastern Mountains
This mountains are located in east of Yazd provincemarker and the highest mountains among this mountains are [bon lokht (3002m)] and [bajegan(2879m)].

  • Northern East Mountains
These mountains are located east of [Tabas].This group also includes the mountains Shir Kuh

Climate

Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only , and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below .

Governors

Hossain KhanKhan Baba Khan Sardar (around 1849-1850?)

History

The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The present city name has however been derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Arab Islamic conquest of Persia, many Zoroastrians fled to Yazd from neighbouring provinces. The city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam come to be the dominant religion in the city.

Image:Ateshkadeh yazd.jpg|The Zoroastrian temple of YazdImage:Bad Gir Yazd Dolat Abad.jpg|The windcatcher of "Dowlat-abad" in Yazd, is a fine example of desert Persian architecture.Image:Tekiyeh amir chaghmagh yazd.jpg|The medieval Takyeh Amir Chakhmagh, Yazd


Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Genghis Khan. It was visited by Marco Polo in 1272 who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. It briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was sieged unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) Mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty (18th Century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.

Under the rule of the Safavis (16th century), some people emigrated from Yazd and settled in an area which is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement was named Yazdi. This place is currently on the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Farah, in Farah city in Afghanistan. Even today, these people speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.

Marco Polo And Yazd

Here is Marco Polo writing about Yazd:
Yasdi also is properly in Persia; it is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. The people are worshippers of Mahommet.

When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods [producing dates] upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman.
The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo, translated by Henry Yule

Architecture and heritage

is of foremost importance as a centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, and Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent windcatchers, and large underground areas. The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchals, the latter of which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe.

Yazd's heritage as a centre of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Presently, Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20 - 40,000 or 5 to 10%.

Built in 12th century and still being in use, Jame mosque of Yazdmarker is an example of finest Persian mosaics and excellent architecture. It's minarets are the highest in the country.

Historical sites in Yazd City



Image:Yazd_4.jpg|A reservoir with wind towers

Image:6-wind tower.jpg|6-Wind Tower Reservoir

Image:Yazd 7.jpg|Entrance of Kabir jaame mosqueImage:Masjedjaame2.jpg|Kabir jaame mosque

Image:Yazd 10.jpg|Hotel Dad ( a sample traditional hotel in yazd )Image:Badgir.jpg|doubled windtower of Aga Zadeh House is one of few doubled windtowers in the worldImage:Silence--Yazd-1.jpg|Zoroastrians’ Tower of Silence(near Zarch)Image:Dakhme.jpg|Zoroastrians’ Tower of Silence(safaa eyeh)File:KhanBathYazd.jpg|Khan BathImage:850vpmg.jpg|Khan BathImage:Yazd 91.jpg|Shahzadeh Fazel ShrineImage:Garden1.jpg| Dowlat Abad Garden
Interior tile work of Jame Mosque's Dome
  • Arab-ha House
  • Malek-altojjar House
  • Lari-ha House
  • Mullah Ismall mosque
  • sahl Ibn Ali Mausoleum
  • Khan Bazaar
  • Rasoulian House
  • Sheikh Ahmad Fahadan Mausoleum
  • Seyed Rokn-al din Mausoleum
  • Seyed Shams-al din Mausoleum
  • Masoudi Reservoir
  • Malak-al Tojjar House
  • Mortaz House
  • Iran Shahr School
  • Hajj Yusef Reservoir
  • Rig mosque
  • Fort mosque
  • Shah Tahmasb mosque
  • Zargari Bazzar
  • Mortaz House
  • Fortifications of Yazd
  • Zia iah school


Yazd today

Yazd today
Yazd Railway station 2007
Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewelry industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.

A variety of Yazdi sweets
Yazd's confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran, which has been a source of tourism for the city. Workshops (experts or khalifehs) keep their recipes a guarded secret and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baghlava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.

In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened;[53651] it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.

Famous people from Yazd

Farrokhi Yazdi






Higher education in Yazd

The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of Architecture specializing in traditional Persian Art and Architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:

  1. University of Yazd
  2. Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
  3. Islamic Azad University of Bafq
  4. Islamic Azad University of Maybod
  5. Islamic Azad University of Yazd
  6. Yazd Sampad Information Center
  7. Yazd Science and Technology Park
  8. Yazd Jahad Daneshgahi
  9. University of Jame Elmi_Karbordi of Yazd


Sister cities



External links




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