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Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine government office regions of England. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshiremarker, along with the part of northern Lincolnshiremarker that was, from 1974 to 1996, within the former shire county of Humberside. The population in 2006 was 5,142,400.

Geographical context

See Topographical areas of Yorkshire and Geology of Yorkshire

In the Yorkshire and the Humber region there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology. The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moorsmarker in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Woldsmarker and Lincolnshire Woldsmarker to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.

The main rivers of Yorkshire.
The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ousemarker which reaches the North Seamarker via the Humber Estuarymarker. The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swalemarker, which drains Swaledalemarker before passing through Richmondmarker and meandering across the Vale of Mowbraymarker. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Uremarker, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Niddmarker rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Parkmarker and flows along Nidderdalemarker before reaching the Vale of York.

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfemarker, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawoodmarker. The Rivers Airemarker and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goolemarker. In the far north of the county the River Teesmarker flows eastwards through Teesdalemarker and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbroughmarker. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitbymarker.

The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marshmarker. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hullmarker flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hullmarker. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribblemarker which drains westwards into the Irish Seamarker close to Lytham St Annesmarker.

The highest point of the region is Whernsidemarker, in the Yorkshire Dalesmarker, at . The largest freshwater lake is Hornsea Meremarker in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

The Humber Bridge
This region of Englandmarker generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters with the upland areas of the North York Moorsmarker and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Oceanmarker.Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. The temperature is usually lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year and July is usually the warmest month.

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county County/ unitary Districts
South Yorkshiremarker * 1. Sheffieldmarker, 2. Rotherhammarker, 3. Barnsley, 4. Doncastermarker
West Yorkshire * 5. Wakefieldmarker, 6. Kirkleesmarker, 7. Calderdalemarker, 8. Bradfordmarker, 9. Leedsmarker
North Yorkshire
(part only)
10. North Yorkshire † a.) Selbymarker, b.) Harrogatemarker, c.) Craven, d.) Richmondshiremarker, e.) Hambletonmarker, f.) Ryedalemarker, g.) Scarboroughmarker
11. Yorkmarker U.A.
East Riding of Yorkshire 12. East Riding of Yorkshire U.A.
13. Kingston upon Hullmarker U.A.
Lincolnshiremarker
(part only)
14. North Lincolnshiremarker U.A.
15. North East Lincolnshiremarker U.A.


Key: shire county = † | metropolitan county = *

It was originally called Yorkshire and Humberside, and defined as North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshiremarker and Humberside. Since then, Humberside has been abolished, and the councils of West and South Yorkshire abolished. The older form of the name is still occasionally seen.

Regional assembly

The Yorkshire and Humber Assembly was a partnership of all local authorities in the region and representatives of various economic, social and environmental sectors. The full Assembly normally met three times a year, normally in February, June and October.
The full Assembly is responsible for providing regional leadership, agreeing regional strategic priorities, directing the development of the Integrated Regional Framework and endorsing key regional strategies. Membership comprises all 22 local authorities in this region, plus 15 Social, Economic and Environmental partners, and the National Parks for planning purposes.


On 31 March 2009, the Assembly was abolished and replaced by Local Government Yorkshire and Humber, which continues to be based in the former Assembly premises in King Street in Wakefieldmarker.

Yorkshire is one of the two regions (along with the North West) that were expected to have a referendum about the establishment of an elected regional assembly. When the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced that he would not move orders for other referenda before the relevant provisions expired in June, 2005.

European Parliament

The European constituency of Yorkshire and the Humber is coterminous with the English region. After the European Parliament election in June 2009, Yorkshire and the Humber is represented by two Conservative, one Labour, one UKIP, one Liberal Democrat and one BNP MEPs. It is one of only two regions in the UK to have elected an MEP from the BNP.

Election results 2009

Elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won.

Demographics

Population, density and settlements

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest metropolitan area
Yorkshire and the Humber 5,177,200 328/km² Leedsmarker (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Areamarker (1,499,465)
West Yorkshire 2,118,600 1,004/km² Leeds (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Area (1,499,465)
South Yorkshiremarker 1,292,900 833/km² Sheffieldmarker (530,300) Sheffield Urban Areamarker (640,720)
East Riding of Yorkshire 587,100 137/km² Kingston upon Hullmarker (257,000) Kingston upon Hull Urban Area (301,416)
North Yorkshire 1,061,300 123/km² Yorkmarker (193,300) Yorkmarker (193,300)
North Lincolnshiremarker 159,000 188/km² Scunthorpemarker (72,660) Scunthorpemarker (72,660)
North East Lincolnshiremarker 158,900 828/km² Grimsbymarker (87,574) Grimsby/Cleethorpesmarker (138,842)


Teenage pregnancy

For top-tier authorities, Kingston upon Hull has the highest teenage pregnancy rate, closely followed by North East Lincolnshiremarker. For top-tier authorities, North Yorkshire has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate. For council districts, Ryedalemarker has the lowest rate, closely followed by Craven. Only North Yorkshire has council districts in the region.

Transport

Transport policy

M62 Ouse Bridge
As part of the national transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes. The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the Yorkshire and The Humber region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: East Riding of Yorkshire U.A., Kingston upon Hullmarker, North East Lincolnshiremarker U.A., North Lincolnshiremarker U.A., North Yorkshire, South Yorkshiremarker, West Yorkshire and Yorkmarker U.A..

Road

The M62's route in relation to the four major cities it serves: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Hull.
The M62 motorway is Yorkshire's main east-west thoroughfare, and north-south routes are the M1 and the A1marker, with only the A1 continuing further north. The other main north south road in the region is the A19.

Rail

The central hubs of the rail network in the region are Leedsmarker, Sheffieldmarker and Yorkmarker. The East Coast Main Line passes through Leedsmarker and Yorkmarker whilst the Midland Main Line finishes at Sheffieldmarker, with a less regular service to Leeds, operated by East Midlands Trains. East-west routes are the North TransPennine to Manchestermarker, and South TransPennine through Doncastermarker.

Air

Airports in the region are Leeds Bradford International Airportmarker at Yeadonmarker, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffieldmarker near Doncastermarker and Humberside Airportmarker near Briggmarker in North Lincolnshiremarker. Durham Tees Valley Airportmarker serves the northernmost areas of the region, and there are day and night direct rail connections from the region to Manchester Airportmarker.

Sea

Hullmarker has daily ferries to Zeebruggemarker and Rotterdammarker.

Economy

Yorkshire Forward is the Regional Development Agency charged with improving the Yorkshire and Humber economy, where some 270,000 businesses contribute to an economy worth in excess of £80 billion. With over 5 million people living in the region it ranks alongside some small countries including Ireland, Greece, Norway and Singapore.

Yorkshire in the past has been synonymous with mining. Many pits closed in the 1990s, with only two in the Pontefract area left at Kellingley and Sharlstonmarker. In South Yorkshire, there is Maltby Main Collierymarker and Hatfield Colliery at Stainforthmarker. The NUM was very Yorkshire-dominated. Coal still plays a part in the economy - there are three large power stations along the Airemarker Valley, with Draxmarker being the second largest in Europe with 3,945 MW of capacity. The distribution area once looked after by the regional electricity company Yorkshire Electricity is now looked after by YEDL, owned by CE Electric UK.[[Image:508425 5f1cb177-by-Steve--Fareham.jpg|thumb|left|Corus steelworks at Scunthorpe]]

East and North

Scunthorpemarker is where steel is smelted by Corus, and where Golden Wonder crisps are made. Grimsbymarker is home of Britain's fishing industry, and has many frozen food factories such as Young's Bluecrest. There are two large oil refineries at Imminghammarker, and a BP chemical works at Saltendmarker in Hull. Croda International, the chemical company, is in East Cowickmarker. Nestlé in the UK are based in York, with operations in Halifax, as is Persimmon plc, Portakabin and National Express East Coast. Smith & Nephew and Reckitt Benckiser medical and household products companies originated in Hull, and still have large factories there. Fenner plc is in Hesslemarker and BAE Systemsmarker make the Hawk at Broughmarker. There are many RAF bases in North Yorkshire, close to the A1, Catterick Garrisonmarker is the largest army base in Europe near Richmondmarker, and the Defence School of Transport Leconfieldmarker is near Beverleymarker. McCain is in Scarboroughmarker as is AlphaGraphics. Skipton Building Society is in Skipton. Richmond Foods is based in Leeming Barmarker which owns Dalepak, but has its main ice cream factory in Cross Gates, Leedsmarker.

West and South

Leeds is now a centre of financial services companies, with Direct Line and First Direct based there, as well as Asda, Northern Foods, Arla Foods UK (maker of Lurpak). The Green Flag roadside recovery firm has its main call centre (in Farsleymarker). HSBC opened their first UK call centre in the city, taking advantage of its advanced communications network which also led to the founding of Freeserve in Leeds. The Waddington board game company was founded in Leeds, as was the Burton tailoring company (the Burton Group became the Arcadia Group) and M & S. Optare make buses in Cross Gatesmarker.

Morrisons is based in Bradford, as are Club 18-30, Provident Financial, Seabrook Potato Crisps, Safestyle UK, Yorkshire Building Society, Stylo, the Grattan catalogue retailer, and Yorkshire Water. Abbey (soon to be Santander) has its savings division there. The Halifax bank (former Building Society) is based in Halifax, the Yorkshire Bank and Leeds Building Society in Leeds, and the Bradford & Bingleymarker in Bingleymarker. Ciba Specialty Chemicals (former Allied Colloids) is in Low Moormarker. Fox's Biscuits (part of Northern Foods) are in Batley. Poundstretcher is in Deightonmarker near Huddersfield. The British Librarymarker is sited at Thorpe Arch near Wetherbymarker. Denso make car radiator in Shipleymarker. David Brown Ltd. is in Lockwoodmarker in Huddersfield; this company owned Aston Martin from 1947-72 and is the company is now part of Textron. Arch Chemicals (former hickson) is in Castlefordmarker. Clariant UK, the chemical company, is in Yeadonmarker. WABCO Vehicle Control Systems UK (air brakes) is in Morleymarker.

Liquorice allsorts
Sheffield is known for its steel industry, which has declined in recent years. Little Chef are based there, in Carbrookmarker near the Don Valley Stadiummarker. SIG plc and Stanley Tools UK are at the city airportmarker. Cadbury UK (formerly Bassett's) make liquorice allsorts in the north of Sheffield; it is Cadbury's Gum & Liquorice division. Plusnetmarker are in the city centre. Rosebys were in Rotherhammarker, before 2008. Mr Kipling is based at Carltonmarker just north of Barnsley, and makes Battenberg cakes there. Galpharm International and Koyo Bearings are at Dodworthmarker near Barnsley. DFS is at Adwick le Streetmarker near the A1/A638 junction. Dr. Oetker products are made at Coltonmarker near the M1 junction and Sherburn-in-Elmetmarker. Aramark UK is in West Park, Leedsmarker. Fox's Biscuits is in Batleymarker. Ronseal is based in Chapeltownmarker in Sheffieldmarker. Morphy Richards and Roberts Radio are based between Swintonmarker and Mexboroughmarker. Maplin Electronics is based on the former site of Manvers Main Collierymarker in Wath-upon-Dearnemarker.

Sport

Football

The region is home to numerous Premier League and Football League clubs. Leeds United, Sheffield Wednesday and Huddersfield Town are the most successful clubs in the region in terms of trophies won, each winning 9, 9 and 5 major trophies respectively. Leeds United are the most successful club in terms of European appearances and success, they have also been the UEFA coefficient Top Club on 3 occasions, more than any other English club.

Here is a list of the Premier League and Football League clubs in the region ranked in their final league position in the 2008–09 season

  1. Hull City
  2. Sheffield United
  3. Sheffield Wednesday
  4. Doncaster Rovers
  5. Barnsley
  6. Leeds United
  7. Scunthorpe United
  8. Huddersfield Town
  9. Bradford City
  10. Rotherham United
  11. Grimsby Town


Education

There are 15 Local Education Authorities in the Yorkshire and Humber region. The schools in each authority are listed in the following -



Secondary education

Schools are mostly comprehensive, with some grammar schools in North Yorkshire, Calderdale and Kirklees. The schools in Hull perform the second-worst in England at GCSE after Knowsleymarker in Merseyside. Also at GCSE, schools in Barnsley, Bradford, and Doncaster have low-achieving results with Barnsley the worst of these. All four of these areas coincidentally have an above-average teenage pregnancy problem. For the metropolitan areas, Calderdale and Wakefield consistently perform the best, although slightly under the England average. York and North Yorkshire perform the best at GCSE in the region, and with the East Riding of Yorkshire have results above the UK average. At A-level North Lincolnshire, Kirklees, York and North Yorkshire perform quite well with Kirklees being the best by a large margin, all having results above the England average. The excellent Kirklees result is due to Greenhead College in Huddersfield, and North Lincolnshire's results are due to the John Leggott Collegemarker, also a sixth form college. The districts of South Yorkshire perform the least in the area at A-level with Rotherham having the best results in this area, and all of these districts achieve similar results, much lower than those in the former districts of Humberside. For both A-level and GCSE, Barnsley and Bradford are very low performing, with Bradford getting the lowest A-level results in the region. Hull and northern Lincolnshire have a wide socio-economic diversity – many under-achieving pupils at 16 but with high performers at A-level.

Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire and the Humber (2008 A-level results)

University of Leeds


Universities

See List of universities in Yorkshire and the Humber

Local media



References

External links




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