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The Yuan Dynasty ( ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; ), or Great Yuan Empire ( ) was both the continuation of the Mongol Empire and the Mongol founded historical state in Mongoliamarker and Chinamarker, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. Although the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, he had his grandfather Genghis Khan placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty or Taizu ( ). Kublai Khan had claimed the title of Great Khan, i.e. supremacy over the other Mongol khanates (Chagatai Khanate, Golden Horde, Ilkhanate); however this claim was only truly recognized by the Il-Khanids, who were nevertheless essentially self-governing. Although later emperors of the Yuan Dynasty were recognized by the three virtually independent western khanates as their nominal suzerains, they each continued their own separate developments. But the Mongol Empire as a whole remained strong and united. The Yuan is sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. The Mongol Emperors of the Yuan held the title of Great Khan of all Mongol Khanates.

History

Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke

In 1259 the Great Khan Möngke died while Kublai Khan, his brother, was campaigning against the Song Dynasty in South China and Ariq Böke, his other brother commanded the Mongol homelands. After Möngke's demise, Ariq Böke decided to attempt to make himself Great Khan. Hearing of this, Kublai aborted his Chinese expedition and had himself elected as Great Khan in an assembly with a small number of attendees in April of 1260. Still, Ariq Böke had his supporters and was elected as a rival Great Khan to Kublai at Karakorummarker, then the capital of Mongol Empire. The brothers then engaged in a series of battles, ending with Ariq Böke's capture in 1264. Kublai held him prisoner until he died two years later. However, this event essentially marked the end of a unified Mongol empire. The khans of the Golden Horde and of the Chagatai Khanate did not recognize Kublai Khan as the Great Khan. The conflicts between Kublai Khan and the khanates in Central Asia led by Kaidu (Qaidu) had lasted for a few decades, until the beginning of the 14th century, when both of them had died. Hülegü, another brother of Kublai Khan, ruled his Ilkhanate and paid homage to the Great Khan but actually established an autonomous khanate, and after Ilkhan Ghazan's enthronement in 1295, Kublai's successor Emperor Chengzong sent him a Chinese seal reading "王府定國理民之寶" in Chinese script, which formally gave him the authority to establish a country and govern its people. The four major successor khanates never came again under true one rule, though the Great Khans were acknowledged by the two great khanates beyond those of Persiamarker and the Golden Horde.

Founding of the Dynasty

From the beginning of his reign (1260), Kublai Khan had adopted many customs from earlier Chinese dynasties, such as era names and bureaucracy. After winning the war against Ariq Böke, Kublai Khan began his reign over his realm with greater aspirations and self-confidence — in 1266 he ordered the construction of his new capital at the site that is now the modern city of Beijing. The city had been called Zhongdu ( , lit. "Central Capital") during the Jin Dynasty, and in 1272 it came to be known as Dadu ( , "Great Capital") in Chinese, Daidu to the Mongols, and Khanbalikh ("City of the Khans") to the Turks. In 1271 he established the Yuan Dynasty, which would proceed to be the first non-Han dynasty to rule all of China. Its official title, Da Yuan ( , "Great Yuan"), originates from I Ching, "大哉乾元" (dà zāi qián yuán). Yuan is the first dynasty in China to use Da ( , "Great") in its official title. In 1272, Dadu officially became the capital of the Yuan Dynasty.

In the early 1270s, Kublai began his massive drive against the Southern Song. By 1273, Kublai had blockaded the Yangzi River with his navy and besieged Xiangyang, the last obstacle in his way to capture the rich Yangzi River basin. In 1275, a Song force of 130,000 troops under Chancellor Jia Sidao was defeated by the Yuan force. By 1276, most of the Southern Song territory had been captured by Yuan forces. In 1279, the Yuan army led by the Chinese general Zhang Hongfan had crushed the last Song resistance in Battle of Yamen, which marks the end of the Southern Song and the onset of all of China under the Yuan. Yuan Dynasty is traditionally given credit for reuniting China after several hundred years since the late Tang Dynasty.

After the founding of the dynasty, Kublai Khan was put under pressure by many of his advisers to further expand the sphere of influence of the Yuan through the traditional Sinocentric tributary system. However, the attempts to establish such tributary relationships were rebuffed and expeditions to Japan (twice), Dai Viet (twice during Kublai's rule), and Java, would later met with less success. Nevertheless, Dai Viet and Champa later recognized the supremacy of the Yuan. Kublai established a puppet state in Myanmar, which caused anarchy in the area, also many problems came to the area.

Rule of Kublai Khan

Unlike his predecessors, whose rule usually involved widespread plunder, Kublai Khan tried to warm to and seek support from the populace. Many reforms were made during Kublai Khan's reign.

Kublai Khan began to serve as a true emperor, reforming much of China and its institutions, a process that would take decades to complete. For example, he consolidated his rule by centralizing the government of China — making himself (unlike his predecessors) an absolute monarch. He reformed many other governmental and economic institutions, especially the tax system. Kublai Khan sought to govern China through traditional institutions, and also recognized that in order to rule China he needed to employ Han Chinese advisers and officials, though he never relied totally on Chinese advisers. Yet, the Hans were discriminated against politically. Almost all important central posts were monopolized by Mongols, who also preferred employing non-Hans from other parts of the Mongol domain in those positions for which no Mongol could be found. Hans were more often employed in non-Chinese regions of the empire . In essence, society was divided into four classes in order of privilege: Mongols, "Color-eyed" (Central Asians, mostly Uyghurs and Tibetans), Han (Han Chinese in northern China, Khitans, and Jurchens), and Southerners (Han Chinese within Southern Song and other ethnic groups). During his lifetime, Kublai Khan built the capital of the Yuan, Dadu, which is present-day Beijing, and made Shangdumarker ( , "Upper Capital", known to Marco Polo as Xanadu) the summer capital. He also improved the agriculture of China, extending the Grand Canal, highways and public granaries. Marco Polo described his rule as benevolent: relieving the populace of taxes in times of hardship; building hospitals and orphanages; distributing food among the abjectly poor. He also promoted science and religion, and strongly supported the Silk Road trade network, allowing the contacts between Chinese technologies and the western ones.

He issued paper banknotes known as Chao (鈔) in 1273. The Yuan bureaucrats made paper bills from the mulberry bark paper. Yuan was the first dynasty in China to use paper currency as the predominant circulating medium.

While he had claimed nominal supremacy over the rest of the Mongol Empire, his interest was clearly in China, along with the areas in its traditional Sinocentric tributary system. From the beginning of his reign, the other three khanates of the Mongol Empire became de facto independent and only one recognized him as Khagan. By the time of Kublai Khan’s death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had broken up into four separate khanates, with Yuan Dynasty being one of them. The temple name given for him is Shizu ( ).

Early rulers after Kublai

Succession was a problem for the Yuan Dynasty, later causing much strife and internal struggle. This emerged as early as the end of Kublai's reign. Kublai originally named his eldest son, Zhenjin ( ) as the Crown Prince ( ) — but he died before Kublai in 1285. Thus, Zhenjin's son ruled as Temür Khan for approximately 10 years following Kublai's death (between 1294 and 1307). Temür Khan decided to maintain and continue much of the work begun by his grandfather. He also made peace with the western Mongol khanates as well as the neighboring countries such as Vietnam, which recognized his nominal suzerainty and paid tributes for a few decades. However, the corruption in the Yuan Dynasty began during the reign of Temür Khan.

Külüg Khan became Khagan of the Yuan after the death of Temür Khan. Unlike his predecessor, he did not continue Kublai's work, but largely rejected it. During his short reign (1307 to 1311), Yuan fell into financial difficulties, partly due to bad decisions made by Külüg. By the time he died, China was in severe debt and the Yuan Dynasty faced popular discontent.

The fourth Yuan emperor, Buyantu Khan was a competent emperor. He was the first among the Yuan emperors who actively supported and adopted the mainstream Chinese culture after the reign of Kublai, to the discontent of some Mongol elite. He had been mentored by Li Meng, a Confucian academic. He made many reforms, including the liquidation of the Department of State Affairs ( ), which resulted in the execution of 5 of the highest ranking officials. Starting in 1313 imperial examinations were reintroduced for prospective officials, testing their knowledge on significant historical works. Also, he codified much of the law, as well as publishing or translating a number of Chinese books and works.

Gegeen Khan, Buyantu Khan's son and successor, continued his father's policies to reform the government based on the Confucian principles, with the help of his newly appointed grand chancellor Baiju. During his reign, the Da Yuan Tong Zhi (Chinese: 大元通制, "the comprehensive institutions of the Great Yuan"), a huge collection of codes and regulations of the Yuan Dynasty began by his father, was formally promulgated.

Withdrawal of the Mongol rule

The last years of the Yuan Dynasty were marked by struggle, famine, and bitterness among the populace. The dynasty was, significantly, one of the shortest-lived dynasties in the history of China, covering just a century, 1271 to 1368. In time, Kublai Khan's successors lost all influence on other Mongol lands across Asia, while the Mongols beyond the Middle Kingdom saw them as too Chinese. Gradually, they lost influence in China as well. The reigns of the later Yuan emperors were short and were marked by intrigues and rivalries. Uninterested in administration, they were separated from both the army and the populace. China was torn by dissension and unrest; outlaws ravaged the country without interference from the weakening Yuan armies.

Regardless of the merits of his reign, Shidebala (Emperor Yingzong) ruled for only two years (1321 to 1323); his rule ended in a coup at the hands of five princes. They placed Yesün Temür (or Taidingdi) on the throne, and, after an unsuccessful attempt to calm the princes, he also succumbed to regicide. When Yesün Temür died in Shangdu in 1328, Tugh Temür was recalled to Dadu by the Qipchaq commander El Temür. He was installed as the emperor (Emperor Wenzong) in Dadu while Yesün Temür's son Ragibagh succeeded to the throne in Shangdu with the support of Yesün Temür's favorite retainer Dawlat Shah. Gaining support from princes and officers in Northern China and some other parts of the dynasty, Dadu-based Tugh Temür eventually won the civil war against Ragibagh in 1329. Afterwards, Tugh Temür abdicated in favour of his brother Kusala who was backed by Chagatai Khan Eljigidey and announced Dadu's intent to welcome him. However, Kusala suddenly died only 4 days after a banquet with Tugh Temür. He was supposedly killed with poison by El Temür, and Tugh Temür then remounted the throne. Tugh Temür also sent delegates to the western Mongol khanates in order to be accepted as the suzerain of Mongol world. He gave Eljigidey the imperial seal and precious gifts and sent 3 Chingisid princes to Ilkhanate and Golden Horde. Western khanates responded favorably and sent tribute missions to the Yuan emperor. However, he was mainly a puppet of the powerful official El Temür during his latter three-year reign. El Temür purged pro-Kusala officials and brought power to warlords, whose despotic rule clearly marked the decline of the dynasty.

Due to the fact that the bureaucracy was dominated by El Temür, Tugh Temür is known for his cultural contribution instead. He adopted many measures honoring Confucianism and promoting Chinese cultural values. His most concrete effort to patronize Chinese learning was his founding of the Academy of the Pavilion of the Star of Literature ( ), first established in the spring of 1329, and was designed to undertake "a number of tasks relating to the transmission of Confucian high culture to the Mongolian imperial establishment". The academy was responsible for compiling and publishing a number of books, but its most important achievement was its compilation of a vast institutional compendium named Jingshi Dadian ( ). He supported Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism and also devoted himself in Buddhism.

After the death of Tugh Temür in 1332 and subsequently the death of Rinchinbal (Emperor Ningzong) in the end of the same year, the 13-year-old Toghun Temür (Emperor Huizong), the last of the nine successors of Kublai Khan, was summoned back from Guangxi and succeeded to the throne after El Temür's death. Nevertheless, Bayan became another powerful official as El Temür was in the beginning of his long reign. As Toghun Temür grew, he came to disapprove of Bayan's autocratic rule. In 1340 he allied himself with Bayan's nephew Toghtogha, who was in discord with Bayan, and banished Bayan by coup. With the dismissal of Bayan, Toghtogha seized the power of the court. His first administration clearly exhibited fresh new spirit. He also gave a few early signs of a new and positive direction in central government. One of his successful projects was to finish the long-stalled official histories of the Liao, Jin and Song dynasties, which were eventually completed in 1345. Yet, Toghtogha resigned his office with the approval of Toghun Temür, which marked the end of his first administration, and he was not called back until 1349.

From the late 1340s onwards, people in the countryside suffered from frequent natural disasters such as droughts, floods and the resulting famines, and the government's lack of effective policy led to a loss of popular support. In 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion started and grew into a nationwide uprising. In 1354, when Toghtogha led a large army to crush the Red Turban rebels, Toghun Temür suddenly dismissed him for fear of betrayal. This resulted in Toghun Temür's restoration of power on the one hand and a rapid weakening of the central government on the other. He had no choice but to rely on local warlords' military power, and gradually lost his interest in politics and ceased to intervene in political struggles. He fled north to Shangdumarker from Dadu (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the Míng Dynastymarker (1368–1644), founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south. He had tried to regain Dadu, which eventually failed; he died in Yingchang (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) two years later (1370). Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death.

Basalawarmi established a separate pocket of resistance to the Ming in Yunnanmarker and Guizhoumarker, but his forces were decisively defeated by the Ming in 1381.

Northern Yuan

Mongol relict states and domains by the 15th century
The Yuan remnants retreated to Mongolia after the fall of Yingchang to the Ming in 1370, where the Yuan Dynasty was formally carried on. Under the name Northern Yuan the Mongols resisted the Ming. According to Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate dynasty whose rulers were blessed by Heaven to rule as Emperor of China (see Mandate of Heaven), and so the Ming and the Northern Yuan denied each other's legitimacy as emperors of China, although the Ming did consider the previous Yuan which it had succeeded a legitimate dynasty. Historians generally regard Míng Dynastymarker rulers as the legitimate emperors of China after the Yuan Dynasty, though Northern Yuan rulers also claimed this title.

The Ming army pursued the Northern Yuan forces into Mongolia in 1372, but were defeated by the latter under Ayushridar and Köke Temür. They tried again in 1380, ultimately winning a decisive victory over Northern Yuan in 1388. Many Mongols were taken prisoner, and Karakorummarker (the Northern Yuan capital) was sacked in 1380. Eight years later, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Yesüder, a descendant of Ariq Böke, instead of the descendants of Kublai Khan. The following centuries saw a succession of Chinggisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. Periods of conflict with the Ming Dynasty intermingled with periods of peaceful relations with border trade. In 1402, Örüg Temür Khan (Guilichi) abolished the name Great Yuan; he was however defeated by Öljei Temür Khan (Bunyashiri), protege of Tamerlane (Timur Barulas) in 1403. Batumongke Khaan (1464–1517/43) adopted the Mongolian reigning title Dayan meaning Whole, which sounded like Da Yuan (Great Yuan) and reunited the Mongols. The Borjigin Khagans continued to rule until the Qing occupation in 1635.

Impact

A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan Dynasty. The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular. The political unity of China and much of central Asia promoted trade between East and West. The Mongols' extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. The other cultures and peoples in the Mongol World Empire permanently influenced China. Tibetan-rite Tantric Buddhism also took permanent root in Chinese buddhism. The Muslims of the Yuan Dynasty introduced Middle Eastern cartography, astronomy, medicine, clothing, and diet in East Asia. Middle Eastern crops such as carrots, turnips, new varieties of lemons, eggplants, and melons, high-quality granulated sugar, and cotton were all either introduced or successfully popularized by the Yuan Mongols.

Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich Chinese performing arts. From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest. Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration. Buddhism (especially Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although Taoism endured certain persecutions in favor of Buddhism from the Yuan government. Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Yuan court, probably in the hope of maintaining order over Han society. Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, geography, and scientific education.

Certain Chinese innovations and products, such as purified saltpetre, printing techniques, porcelain, playing cards and medical literature, were exported to Europe and Western Asia, while the production of thin glass and cloisonné became popular in China. The Yuan exercised a profound influence on the Chinese Ming Dynasty. The Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (1368–97) admired the Mongols' unification of China and adopted its garrison system.

The first recorded travels by Europeans to China and back date from this time. The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetianmarker Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to "Cambaluc," the capital of the Great Khan, and of life there astounded the people of Europe. The account of his travels, Il milione (or, The Million, known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo), appeared about the year 1299.

The Yuan undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved. To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks. During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal of China, which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland and maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated direct Chinese contacts with Europe. Chinese travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering. Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major food crop, sorghum, along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.

There exist different views as to the Yuan Dynasty in China. Like the Qing Dynastymarker that ruled Chinamarker later, while many Chinese people and the Chinese governments (including the current governments and the government of the Ming Dynastymarker that overthrew the Yuan Dynasty) consider Yuan Dynasty as a legitimate dynasty of China, a number of Chinese people view it as a period of foreign domination. The latter believe that under the rule of both these dynasties, Han Chinese were treated as second-class citizens, and China stagnated economically and scientifically; in addition, Chinese technologies such as gunpowder and the compass spread to Europe under the Yuan. But there are also other views.

In historiography of Mongolia, the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) is generally considered to be the continuation of the Mongol Empire. In traditional historiography of China on the other hand, the Yuan Dynasty is usually considered to be the legitimate dynasty between the Song Dynasty and the Ming Dynastymarker. Note, however, Yuan Dynasty is traditionally often extended to cover the Mongol Empire before Kublai Khan's formal establishment of the Yuan in 1271, partly because Kublai had his grandfather Genghis Khan placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty or Taizu ( ).

Society

Mongol lifestyle

Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c.
1280.
The Great Khans' court preserved its Mongol character until the end of the Dynasty. None of the Emperors mastered written Chinese, although they could generally converse well in language. The Mongol custom of long standing quda/marriage alliance with Mongol clans, the Onggirat and the Ikeres, kept the imperial blood purely Mongol until the reign of Tugh Temur whose mother was a Tangut concubine. Although, the Mongol Emperors had large palaces and pavilions built, they continued to live as nomads.

Kublai and his successors kept a Tibetan lama of the Saskiya order at court. Mongol patronage of Buddhism resulted in a number of monuments of buddhist art. Mongolian Buddhist translations, almost all from Tibetan originals, began on a large scale after 1300. Many Mongol upper class culture such as the Jalayir and the Oronar nobles delighted in patronizing Confucian scholars and institutions. A considerable number of Confucian and Chinese historical works were translated into Mongolian language.

The average Mongol garrison family seems to have lived a life of decaying rural leisure, with income from the harvests of their Chinese tenants eaten up by costs of equipping and dispatching men for their tours of duty. The Mongols practiced debt slavery and by 1290 in all parts of the Mongol Empire Mongol commoners were selling their children into slavery. Seeing this as damaging the Mongol nation, Kublai forbade the sale of abroad of the Mongols in 1291, and Ghazan Khan (1295–1304) in Iranmarker budgeted funds to redeem Mongol slaves.

Social classes

A white porcelain Buddhist statue from the Yuan Dynasty
Although the traditional Chinese elite were not given their share of power, the Mongolians and the Semuren (various allied groups from Central Asia and the western end of the empire) remained strangers to the Chinese culture. This dichotomy gave the Yuan regime a strong colonial coloration.

The Mongol Empire employed many foreigners throughout all of its history. Kublai codified the hierarchy of reliability by dividing the population of the Yuan Dynasty into the following classes:



Partner merchants and non-Mongol overseers were usually either immigrants or local ethnic groups. Thus, in China they were Uighurs, Turkestani and Persian Muslims, and Christians. Foreigners from outside the Mongol Empire entirely, such as the Polo family were everywhere welcomed.

Administrative divisions

The territory of the Yuan Dynasty was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) and places under control of various Xing Zhongshusheng (行中書省 or 行省) or the Xuanzheng Institute (宣政院).

The Central Region, consisting of present-day Hebeimarker, Shandongmarker, Shanximarker, the south-eastern part of present-day Inner Mongolia and the Henanmarker areas to the north of the Yellow Rivermarker, was considered the most important region of the dynasty and directly governed by Zhongshusheng (中書省, "Secretariat") at Dadu; similarly, another top-level administrative department called the Xuanzheng Institute governed the whole of modern-day Tibet and a south-east part of Turkestan.

Xing Zhongshusheng (行中書省, "branch Secretariat" or "en-route Secretariat"), or simply Xingsheng (行省), were provincial-level administrative organizations or institutions, sometimes roughly translated as "Province", though they were not exactly provinces in modern sense. There were 11 Xing Zhongshusheng or Xingsheng in Yuan Dynasty.

  1. Gansu Xingsheng (甘肅行省) with Zhangyemarker District as its seat of government. Under this came the whole of present-day Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (originally the Tangut territory), south-eastern Gansumarker Province, and part of north-eastern Amdo.
  2. Henan Jiangbei Xingsheng (河南江北行省) with Kaifengmarker District as its seat of government. Under this came the Henanmarker areas to the south of the Yellow River, north-east Hubei, Jiangsu, the north-eastern part of Jiangxi Province.
  3. Huguang Xingsheng (湖廣行省) with Wuhanmarker of the present-day Hubeimarker Province as its seat of government. Under this came a part of south-east Hubei, Hunanmarker, Guangxi, most of Guizhoumarker, and parts of south-western Guangdongmarker Province.
  4. Jiangxi Xingsheng (江西行省) with Nanchangmarker as its seat of government. Under this came most of present-day Jiangxi and Guangdong Province.
  5. Jiangzhe Xingsheng (江浙行省) with Hangzhoumarker as its seat of government. Under this came Jiangsumarker and Anhuimarker areas to the south of the Yangtzemarker River, Zhejiangmarker, Fujianmarker, and a small area in the north-east of Jiangximarker Province.
  6. Liaoyang Xingsheng (遼陽行省) with present-day Liaoyangmarker District in Liaoning Province as its seat of government. Under this came north-east Chinamarker and the northern part of Koreamarker.
  7. Lingbei Xingsheng (嶺北行省) with Karakorummarker as its seat of government. Under this province came the present-day Mongoliamarker, northern Inner Mongolia and southern Siberiamarker.
  8. Shaanxi Xingsheng (陝西行省) with Xi'anmarker as its seat of government. Under this came the majority of present-day Shaanximarker Province, the south-western part of Inner Mongolia, south-eastern Gansumarker, north-western Sichuanmarker, and a small part of Amdo.
  9. Sichuan Xingsheng (四川行省) with Chengdumarker at its seat of government. Under this came most of present-day Sichuanmarker Province and parts of south-western Shaanximarker.
  10. Yunnan Xingsheng (雲南行省) with Kunmingmarker as its seat of government. Under this came present-day Yunnanmarker Province and parts of western Guizhoumarker.
  11. Zhendong Xingsheng (征東行省) with Kaesongmarker of present-day Koreamarker as its seat. It was a special institution set up when Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japanmarker in 1281, with the king of Goryeomarker as its head. The setting of this Xingsheng was considerably different from all other Xingsheng, and unlike other Xingsheng, Zhendong (征東), literally "Conquer East" or "Eastern Expedition", was not a geographic name, and this institution was also referred to as "Japanese Expedition Xingsheng" (征日本行省) or just "Japan Xingsheng" (日本行省). It was abolished when the invasion of Japan had failed, though set up again later.


Below the level of Xing Zhongshusheng or Xingsheng, the largest political division was the circuit (道), followed by prefectures (府) operating under a prefect and subprefectures (州) under a subprefect. The lowest political division was the county (縣) overseen by a magistrate. This government structure at the provincial level was later copied by the Mingmarker and Qingmarker dynasties.

See also



References

  1. Christopher P.Atwood – Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire
  2. Yuan was officially established in this year. It however didn't control all of Southern China until 1279.
  3. The Yuan remnants continued to rule Mongolia after 1368, when it was known as the Northern Yuan.
  4. Micheal Prwadin – The Mongol Empire and its legacy
  5. J.J.Saunders – The history of Mongol conquests
  6. Rene Grousset – The Empire of Steppes
  7. The seal, in Chinese script, reads "Seal certifying the authority of his Royal Highness to establish a country and govern its people". Vatican Archives.
  8. H.H.Howorth-History of the Mongols, vol.II p.288
  9. Thomas T. Allsen-Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia, p.32
  10. Rossabi, M., Khubilai Khan, p131.
  11. Zhu Guozhen (1557–1632), Yong Zhuang Xiaopin (涌幢小品) Vol.2.
  12. An earlier expedition had failed in 1257/1258.
  13. Rossabi, M. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times, p56
  14. Rossabi, M. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times, p115
  15. The Cambridge History of China By Denis Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John K. Fairbank, p.550
  16. C.P.Atwood- Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.611
  17. The Mongol Empire By Michael Prawdin, Gerard Chaliand, ISBN 9781412805193
  18. Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties (960–1911)
  19. Ed.Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368, p.492
  20. Duosang Mongol History, Vol. 1; Zhong-gou Tong-shi; History of Zhong-gou Border Nationalities; The New Yuan-shih
  • J. J. Saunders, The History of the Mongol Conquests (1971)
  • Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill, Islamic Technology (1988)


Further reading



External links




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