Yugoslav People's Army (JNA, YPA) (Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, or Jugoslovenska
Narodna Armija – JNA, Cyrillic script: Југославенска
народна армија or Југословенска народна армија – JHA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska
armada – JLA) was the military of the
Socialist Federal Republic of
The origins of JNA can be found in the Yugoslav Partisan
units of World War II
. As a part of the antifascist People's Liberation War of
Yugoslavia, the People's Liberation Army
of Yugoslavia (NOVJ), a predecessor of JNA, was formed on
December 22, 1941 in the town of Rudo in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. After the liberation of the country from the
Axis Powers occupation, that date was
officially celebrated as the Day of the Army in the
March 1945, the NOVJ was renamed the Yugoslav Army
) and finally on its 10th anniversary
on December 22, 1951, received the adjective People's
Once considered the third strongest army in Europe and fourth in
the world(Only USA,UK and Soviet Union were stronger), JNA
consisted of the ground force
, air force
. They were
organized in four military regions
The regions were further divided into districts that were
responsible for administrative tasks such as draft registration
and construction and maintenance
of military facilities. The regions were: Belgrade (responsible for
eastern Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia and
Herzegovina), Zagreb (Slovenia and northern
Croatia), Skopje (Republic of
Macedonia, southern Serbia and Montenegro) and Split Naval
Of the JNA's 180,000 soldiers, more than 90,000 were
In 1990 the army had nearly completed a major overhaul of its basic
force structure. It eliminated its old division
infantry organization and
established the brigade
as the largest
operational unit. The army converted ten of twelve infantry
divisions into twenty-nine tank
, mechanized, and mountain infantry brigades with
, air defense
, and anti-tank
regiments. One airborne
brigade was organized before 1990.
The shift to brigade-level organization provided greater operational
, and tactical
initiative, and it reduced the
possibility that large army units would be destroyed in setpiece
engagements with an aggressor. The change created many senior field
command positions that would develop relatively young and talented
officers. The brigade structure also was more appropriate at a time
of declining manpower.
Industry and Infrastructure
The arms industry took up the majority of Yugoslavia's heavy
industries. With annual exports of $3 billion, it was twice as
large as the second largest Yugoslav industry, tourism. It had
modern infrastructure with underground air-bases and control
centres in several mountains. The biggest and best known was the Bihać
underground Integrated Radar Control and Surveillance Centre and
Air Base also known
as "Željava" in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Several companies in Yugoslavia produced airplanes and specifically
combat aircraft, most notably Soko of Mostar, with the Soko J-22
Orao being the best known, as well as
Utva in Serbia. Regarding ground combat, Yugoslav
military-industrial complex produced tanks (most notably, the
modern M-84), armored vehicles (BOV-M
), various artillery pieces (mortars, MLRS,
howitzers etc.), anti-aircraft weapons, as well as various types of
infantry weapons and other equipment.
[[Image:Tito maneuvers "Sloboda 71".jpg|right|thumb|Marshal Josip Broz
duringmilitary maneuvers "Sloboda 71
The ground forces led in personnel. It had about 165,000
active-duty soldiers (including 90,000 conscripts) in 1991 and
could mobilize over a million trained reservists
in wartime. Reserve forces were
organized along republics' lines into Territorial Defence
and in wartime they were to be subordinate to JNA Supreme Command
as an integral part
of defence system. Territorial Defence (reserve force) was made up
of former conscripts and they were occasionally called up for war
The ground forces were infantry, armour
artillery, and air defence, as well as signal, engineering and
chemical defence corps.
JRV – Yugoslav Air Force
The MiG-29s were the newest aircraft
in the Yugoslav Air Force.
The MiG-21s were the main fighters in
Yugoslav Air Force.
The Yugoslav Air Force had about 32,000 including 4,000 conscripts
and operated over 700 aircraft
. It was responsible for
as well as
the national air defense system. The primary air force missions
were to contest enemy efforts to establish air superiority
over Yugoslavia and to support the
defensive operations of the ground forces and navy. Most aircraft were
produced in Yugoslavia but missiles were
produced domestically or supplied by the Soviet Union.
The Yugoslav Air Force had twelve squadrons of domestically
produced ground attack fighters. The ground attack squadrons
provided close air support to ground force operations. They were
equipped with 165 new Orao-2
and J-21 Jastreb
, and older P-2 Kraguj fighters.
ground attack fighters were armed with AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles purchased
from the United
Others were armed with Soviet Kh-23
missiles. The air
force also had about ninety armed Mi-8
helicopter gunships to provide added mobility and fire support for
small ground units. A large number of reconnaissance aircraft were
available to support ground forces operations. Four squadrons of
seventy Galeb, Jastreb, and Orao-1 fighters were configured for
The Yugoslav Air Force had nine squadrons of 130 Soviet-made
interceptors for air defence. First
produced in the late 1950s, the MiG-21 design was largely obsolete
in 1990 and represented a potential weakness in Yugoslavia's air
defense. However, the bulk of the MiG-21 fleet consisted mainly of
variant, the latest production MiG-21 model, and
was armed with Soviet AA-2
air-to-air missiles and some more modern AA-8
(NATO: Aphid) missiles as well as twin 23 mm cannons. By 1989,
started developing a new
domestic multirole fighter called Novi
, which was supposed to replace the MiG-21
and J-21 Jastreb
fleets entirely. The design of the new aircraft was influenced by
both Mirage 2000
and Dassault Rafale
fighter types and it was to
enter service by early 2000s. As an interim solution, a modernization
package was planned for the MiG-21 and it is speculated that
India's MiG-21 Bison upgrade was actually intended for
In 1987, Yugoslavia acquired 16 MiG-29 interceptors.
Although not officially known at the time, Yugoslavia was rumored
to have been interested in the purchase of certain numbers of
attack-aircraft and Mi-24
gunships. Instead of developing its own fighter
plane, the "Novi Avion", the country was offered to licence-build
, but due to unstable relations with
the US, the offer was rejected. By late 1980s, the
licence-production of Eurocopter
was also envisaged, but due to the break-up of the
country, this idea, like many others, never came to be
The Yugoslav Air Force conducted a large pilot training program
with almost 200 Galeb, Super Galeb, and UTVA-75
/-76 aircraft. The propeller-driven UTVA
trainers had underwing pylons capable of carrying
light weapons loads. A new UTVA Lasta
was under development in 1990. After practicing instrument and
night flying, gunnery, bombing, rocket firing, and aerial maneuvers
in the Lasta, student pilots progressed to the Super Galeb. Twenty
Partisan helicopters were used for pilot training.
One of the
most impressive structures operated by the JNA Air Force was the
underground Željava air
base near the town of Bihac in Bosnia.
The structure was made to withstand a
nuclear explosion and was destroyed by the JNA in 1992 to prevent
its capture. Željava was base of 117th Fighter Aviation Regiment,
which has composed of 124th and 125th fighter squadrons equipped
with MiG-21Bis fighters and 352nd rece squadron equipped with
and Air Defence forces were headquartered at Zemun and had
fighter and bomber aircraft, helicopters, and air defence artillery units at
air bases throughout the former Yugoslavia:
Batajnica (Belgrade), Niš, Slatina (Priština), Golubovci (Titograd), Skopski Petrovec, Sarajevo, Mostar,Željava (Bihać), Pleso (Zagreb),
Divulje (Split), Pula, Zemunik (Zadar), Cerklje ob
Krki and many other smaller air bases.
surface combatants operated by the Yugoslav Navy included nearly eighty frigate, corvette, submarines, minesweepers, and missile, torpedo, and
patrol boats in the Adriatic Fleet. The entire coast of Yugoslavia was part of
the naval region headquartered at Split (now part of
The Partisans had operated many small boats in raids harassing
Italian convoys in the Adriatic Sea during World War II. After the
war, the navy operated numerous German and Italian submarines,
destroyers, minesweepers, and tank-landing craft captured during
the war or received as war reparations. The United States provided
eight torpedo boats in the late 1940s, but most of those units were
soon obsolete. The navy was upgraded in the 1960s when it acquired
class missile boats and four
-class torpedo boats from the
Soviet Union. The Soviets granted a license to build eleven
additional Shershen units in Yugoslav shipyards developed for this
In 1980 and 1982, the Yugoslav navy took delivery of two Soviet
Koni class frigates
. In 1988 it
completed two additional units under license. The Koni frigates
were armed with four Soviet SS-N-2B
surface-to-surface missile launchers, twin SA-N-4
(NATO: SA-8 Gecko
missiles, and anti-submarine rocket launchers.
The Yugoslav navy developed its own submarine-building capability
during the 1960s. In 1990, the main combat units of the submarine
service were three Heroj-class patrol submarines armed with
533 mm torpedoes. Two smaller Sava-class units entered service
in the late 1970s. Two Sutjeska
submarines had been relegated mainly to training missions by 1990.
At that time the navy had apparently shifted to construction of
versatile midget submarines. Four Una-class midgets and four
Mala-class swimmer delivery vehicles were in service in the late
1980s. They were built for use by underwater demolition teams and
special forces. The Una-class boats carried five crewmen, eight
combat swimmers, four Mala vehicles, and limpet mines. The Mala
vehicles in turn carried two swimmers and 250 kilograms of
The Yugoslav navy operated ten Osa class missile boats
missile boats. The Osa I boats were armed with four
SS-N-2A surface-to-surface missile launchers. In 1990, ten domestic
Kobra missile boats
were scheduled to begin replacing the
Osa I class. The Kobra class was to be armed with eight Swedish
anti-ship missiles to which idea 100
RBS-15 were ordered in late 1989. Armed with two SS-N-2B launchers,
class boats were modeled after the Swedish
Spica class but these too were also planned to be upgraded with
Swedish-built missiles. Two Kobra missile boats have been,
however, built by Croatia as the
and one Končar class boat has been upgraded to a
previously mentioned standard.
The navy's fifteen
Topcider-class torpedo boats included four former Soviet
Shershen-class and eleven Yugoslav built units.
The Yugoslav navy's mine warfare and countermeasures capabilities
were considered adequate in 1990. It operated four Vukov Klanac
-class coastal minehunters built on
a French design, four British Hamclass inshore minesweepers, and
six 117-class inshore minesweepers built in domestic shipyards.
Larger numbers of older and less capable minesweepers were mainly
used in riverine operations. Other older units were used as
dedicated minelayers. The navy used amphibious landing craft in
support of army operations in the area of the Danube
, and Drava
rivers. They included both tank and assault
landing craft. In 1990, there were four 501-class, ten 211-class,
and twenty-five 601-class landing craft in service. Most of them
were also capable of laying mines in rivers and coastal
The Yugoslav Navy had 10,000 sailors (4,400 conscripts, 900
marines). This was essentially a coastal defense force with the mission
of preventing enemy amphibious
landings along the country's rugged 4,000-kilometer shoreline
or coastal islands, and contesting an enemy blockade or control of the strategic Strait of
Otranto. The entire coast of Yugoslavia was part of
the naval region headquartered at
region was divided into three smaller naval districts and a riverine flotilla with major naval bases located at Split, Sibenik, Pula, Ploce and
Kotor on the Adriatic sea, and Novi
Sad on the river
Danube. The strategic
islands of Vis and
Lastovo were heavily fortified
and unauthorised entry was denied.
was organized into missile, torpedo, and
patrol boat brigades
, a submarine division
, and minesweeper flotillas
. The naval
order of battle
, three corvettes
, five patrol
, fifty-eight missile, torpedo, and patrol boats, and
warfare helicopter squadron
was based at Divulje
on the Adriatic sea coast for coastal operations
. It employed Soviet
helicopters, and domestic Partisan helicopters
. Some air force
fighter and reconnaissance squadrons supported naval
The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) had a unique operational military doctrine
for a conventional
military force. Yugoslavia based its defence doctrine upon the
concept of the "Total National
Defence" ( ; Croatian: Općenarodna obrana; Slovene
: Splošna ljudska obramba; ;
: ONO, cyrilic
ОНО), which drew upon Yugoslavia's rich partisan history during the
in the Second World
. The Total National Defence
gave the JNA the role
of defending borders against aggressors with the intention of
delaying an invader long enough for Territorial Defence
to enter the field and start wearing the invader down
with partisan tactics. The entire Yugoslav population under this
concept was to be engaged in armed resistance, armaments
production, and civil defence. The concept of Total National
Defence was believed by the Yugoslav planners to be the best method
by which a smaller nation could properly defend itself against a
much stronger invader.
JNA tanks in Slovenia, 1991.
During the early stages of the Yugoslav
, and in general during the breakup of Yugoslavia
, there was a
great sense of confusion and concern as to the role that would be
played by the Yugoslav People's Army.
Due to the fact that roughly 60% of the JNA's upper leadership was
, when war broke out in
Croatia in 1991 (Croatian
War of Independence
), the Croatians increasingly treated the
JNA as a hostile force. During the Battle of Vukovar
, the JNA's diverse
ethnic composition of lower fighting units with no real stake or
interest in the war in Croatia led to instances of desertion and
confusion in the area. This was primarily caused by a lack of
understanding as to where they stood with both the Croatian defence
forces and the Serbian paramilitary units who were promoting a
purely Serbian agenda in Eastern
The morale in parts of the JNA became very low as the war
intensified. On September 29,
1991, the navy admiral Vladimir Barović
committed suicide while stationed at the Vis naval base,
leaving a suicide letter which stated
that he could not reconcile his feeling of honor as a Montenegrin
with the aggression of JNA against Croatia.
At the beginning
of war in Croatia, JNA targeted civilians, killing three children
near auto-camp Grabovac at Plitvice Lakes.
By the end of 1991, when both Slovenia and Croatia had practically
seceded, JNA was crippled as a joint army of the SFRY, and was
deprived of its basic fundamentals as a fighting force.
complications arose when Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia declared their independence and an already
unpopular war caused conscription
levels in Serbia to drop to
only 13% of what was required to maintain a functioning
Many in Macedonia or Bosnia and Herzegovina felt that
the war was none of their concern and that their people should not
have anything to do with the conflicts developing in the region. By
mid-1992, war spread to Bosnia.
and Montenegro now being the sole union, replacing SFR Yugoslavia with the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, for legality reasons decided that it was best to
wash their hands of the conflicts which were occurring in nearby
The decision was made to abolish the JNA.
In May 1992, the United Nations
independence of the new republics and accepted them into the UN. In
accordance, the Yugoslav Army was asked to withdraw from Bosnia (as
it was now deemed a hostile armed intervention in another sovereign state
) or face sanctions.
12, 1992, JNA units were split between the FR Yugoslavia army and the Army of Republika Srpska (mostly in
accordance with geographical location or place of origin), along
with the majority of officer staff.
In reality, this meant
that many units changed nothing except their names and
After the satellite army forces were officially formed and JNA was
officially dissolved, the Army of FR Yugoslavia was re-formed with
the new democratic intentions overshadowing the old socialistic
fundamentals of the Yugoslav People's Army. Although, the changes
to the Yugoslav Army
(now Army of Serbia
) were very slow and
modernization did not begin until near the war's end. The
calcification of Army cadre helped keep Slobodan Milošević
but when eventually the October 5th
happened, the army did not intervene.
In the end, Serbia and Montenegro inherited most of Yugoslavia's
military arsenal, though some of its infrastructure was destroyed
or left behind in other Yugoslav republics. Croatians captured some
of the arsenal in the Battle of
, but much of it was extracted. The complete navy
was moved to Montenegro.
JNA Exemplary Soldier Plaque.
If a JNA recruit completes basic training with distinction, he will
earn the Exemplary Soldier plaque. This means that the soldier has
shown that he has gone above and beyond the call of duty. The
plaque's text is addressed to soldier's parents and sent to them
upon completion of training. It lists that the recruit has
excellent understanding of basic military training, military
doctrine and politics. The plaque also states that the recruit has
shown excellent commitment to brotherhood and unity and has shown
honor in defending the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Structure and Installations
Personnel strength: 236.918 (plus 38.423 civilian employees),
wartime: 1.058.378 (1990, numbers include Air Force and Navy, not
Territorial Defense with up to 1,5 Million combatants)
Ministry of Defense/General Staff ("Generalstab", like in German),
BelgradeNuclear War Command Headquarters ("Atomska Ratna Komanda",
ARK), KonjicAlternate Supreme Command Headquarters, Crna Rijeka
(near Han Pijesak)Electronic Intelligence and ECM Center ("EI i
PED"), Split-DivuljeElectronic Intellingence and ECM Center, Velika
Buna (near Zagreb)Electronic Intelligence and ECM Bn, Titovo
UziceElectronic Intelligence and ECM unit, Prokuplje
Guards Motorized Brigade, Belgrade, strength: 4000 men – A-1. Tank
Bn-1. Motorized Bn-2. Motorized Bn-1. Military Police Bn (included
an anti-terrorist company)-2. Military Police Bn-1. Light Air
Defense Artillery Bn-Security Guard Bn-Logistics Bn
63. Airborne Brigade, Nis (officially was part of the Air Force) –
Special Forces Group/General Staff, PancevoAirborne Special Forces
389. Missile Artillery Brigade, Banja Luka (Luna-M/Frog-7) –
Technical and Supply Base/General Staff (former 608. Logistics
317. Signal Regiment, Bijeljina398. Signal Regiment, Titovo
(totals:Three Signal RegimentsOne Engineer RegimentOne Light Air
Defense Artillery Group)
- underground facility known as "Objekat D-O" (object D-O), could
host some 350 people and withstand a nuclear explosion of 25–30
1. Military District ("vojna oblast" = VO), Belgrade-Topcider
(former 1. Army)
4. Motorized Division (being disbanded)22. Rifles Division (being
1. Mixed Anti-Tank Brigade, Belgrade – B152. Mixed Artillery
Brigade, Cuprija?. Special Forces Recce Bn, Vrdnik?. Signal
Regiment?. Military Police Bn1. Military District Electronic
Reconnaissance Plt ("Elektronski Izvidnicki Vod" = EIV), Batajnica
(Air-Force-manned, equipped with 5 to 6
Gazelle-HERA-Helicopters)46. Protection Regiment,
The River Flotilla, Novi Sad
- 1. Proletarian Guard Motorized Division, Belgrade-Banjica –
- 1. Proletarian Guard Motorized Brigade, Belgrade – B
- 2. Proletarian Guard Motorized Brigade, Valjevo – B
- 3. Proletarian Guard Motorized Brigade, Pozarevac – B
- 1. Proletarian Guard Mixed Artillery Regiment, Kragujevac
- 1. Proletarian Guard Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment
- 1. Proletarian Guard Light Mixed Air Defense Regiment
- 1. Proletarian Guard Engineer Bn, Belgrade-Topcider
- 1. Proletarian Guard Signal Bn
Belgrade City Military Command
4. Corps, Sarajevo
- 505. Motorized Brigade, Belgrade
- 151. Motorized Brigade, Belgrade
- 153. Motorized Brigade, Obrenovac
- 150. Motorized Rifles Regiment, Belgrade
- 22. Mixed Anti Tank Regiment, Belgrade
- 22. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment, Belgrade
5. Corps, Banja Luka
- 10. Motorized Brigade, Mostar – A
- 49. Motorized Brigade, Sarajevo-Lukavica – A
- 120. Light Infantry Brigade, Sarajevo
- 651. Motorized Brigade
- 216. Mountain Brigade, Han Pijesak
- 13. Partisan Division – R
- 431. Bridge Bn, Capljina
- ?. Mixed Artillery Regiment
- ?. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment
- ?. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment
- ?. Engineer Regiment
- ?. Signal Bn
- ?. Military Police Bn, Sarajevo
- ?. Medical Bn
- ?. Transportation Bn
- ?. Replacement Bn
- ?. NBC Defense Coy
- ?. Recce Coy
Brigade, Banja Luka – B343. Motorized Brigade, Prijedor16.
Proletarian Motorized Brigade, Banja Luka40. Partisan Division,
Pozega – R10. Partisan Division – R5. Light Air Defense Artillery
Regiment5. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment293.
Engineer Regiment, Nova Topola?. Signal Bn5. Military Police Bn?.
Medical Bn?. Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?.
Recce Coy993. Logistics Base, Banja Luka-Krcmarice
12. Corps, Novi Sad
Proletarian Motorized Brigade, Novi Sad36. Mechanized Brigade,
Subotica – A51. Mechanized Brigade, Pancevo* – A-51. Engineer Bn,
Pancevo453. Mechanized Brigade, Sremska Mitrovica – B/R506. Rifles
Brigade, Zrenjanin16. Mixed Anti-Tank Brigade, Backa Topola – B16.
Mixed Artillery Regiment, Ruma12. Light Air Defense Artillery
Regiment, Novi Sad?. Engineer Regiment?. Signal Bn12. Military
Police Bn, Novi Sad?. Medical Bn?. Transportation Bn?. Replacement
Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce Coy?. Border Bn, Vrsac793. Logistics
Base, Novi Sad (or Petrovaradin)
17. Corps, Tuzla
- at least one source says, 51. Mechanized Brigade belonged to
24. Corps, Kragujevac
Mechanized Brigade, Osijek – A92. Motorized Brigade, Tuzla327.
Motorized Brigade, Derventa395. Motorized Brigade, Brcko130.
Motorized Brigade11. Partisan Division, Doboj – R38. Partisan
Division, Bijeljina – R454. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment, Derventa12.
Mixed Artillery Regiment, Vinkovci17. Light Air Defense Artillery
Regiment, Vinkovci?. Engineer Regiment670. Bridge Bn, Slavonski
Brod?. Signal Bn, Tuzla?. Military Police Bn?. Medical Bn17.
Transportation Bn, Tuzla?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce
Coy51. Border Bn, Beli Manastir904. Logistics Base,
Sevarlije-Potocani (near Doboj)
24. Corps, Kragujevac
Motorized Brigade, Kragujevac169. Motorized Brigade, Loznica9.
Motorized Brigade, Zajecar35. Motorized Brigade, Mladenovac24.
Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment24. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Light Air
Defense Artillery Regiment?. Engineer Regiment?. Signal Bn?.
Military Police Bn?. Medical Bn?. Transportation Bn?. Replacement
Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce Coy524. Logistics Base, Kragujevac201.
Logistics Base, Paracin
37. Corps, Titovo Uzice
Armored Brigade, Kraljevo – B544. Motorized Brigade, Sabac20.
Motorized Brigade, Valjevo27. Motorized Brigade, Kraljevo37.
Motorized Brigade, Raska168. Motorized Brigade, Novi Pazar473.
Motorized Brigade, Gornji Milanovac51. Partisan Division, Nova
Varos – R?. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment?.
Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment579. Engineer Regiment,
Kraljevo228. Signal Bn, Gornji Milanovac?. Military Police Bn?.
Medical Bn?. Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?.
3. Military District, Skopje (former 3. Army)37. Motorized Division
(being disbanded)203. Mixed Artillery Brigade, Nis150. Mixed
Artillery Brigade, Vranje326. Mixed Artillery Brigade,
Danilovgrad?. Special Forces Group, Skopje?. Special Forces Recce
Bn, Pirot?. Signal Regiment, Skopje?. Protection Regiment?.
Military Police Bn3. Military District EIV, Skopje-Petrovec (see
2. Corps, Titograd
Motorized Brigade, Titograd472. Motorized Brigade, Trebinje – B57.
Mountain Brigade, Pljevlja3. Motorized Brigade, Ivangrad179.
Motorized Brigade, Niksic23. Brigade, Bileca / Bosnian TO – R3.
Partizan Division?. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank
Regiment?. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment?. Engineer
Regiment?. Signal Bn?. Military Police Bn?. Medical Bn?.
Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce
21. Corps, Nis
Brigade, Nis – B2. Motorized Brigade, Nis4. Motorized Brigade,
Pirot?. Mountain Brigade, Pirot89. Motorized Brigade, Vranje135.
Motorized Brigade, Surdulica148. Motorized Brigade, Aleksinac805.
Motorized Brigade, Prokuplje?. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed
Anti-Tank Regiment?. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment?.
Engineer Regiment?. Signal Bn287. Military Police Bn, Nis?. Medical
Bn?. Transportation Bn, Nis?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?.
Recce Coy525. Logistics Base
41. Corps, Bitola
Brigade, Tetovo – A243. Armored Brigade, Skopje – B?. Mixed
Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment?. Light Air Defense
Artillery Regiment?. Engineer Regiment?. Signal Bn?. Military
Police Bn?. Medical Bn?. Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC
Defense Coy?. Recce Coy?. Border Bn, Ohrid
42. Corps, Kumanovo
Brigade, Titov Veles592. Motorized Brigade, Kumanovo39. Rifles
Brigade, Stip?. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank
Regiment?. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment?. Engineer
Regiment?. Signal Bn?. Military Police Bn?. Medical Bn?.
Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce
52. Corps, Pristina
Proletarian Mechanized Brigade, Pristina – A125. Motorized Brigade,
Titova Mitrovica102. Mixed Anti-Tank Brigade, Gnjilane – B58.
Motorized Brigade, Leposavic549. Motorized Brigade, Prizren52.
Military Police Bn, Pristina15. Light Air Defense Artillery
Regiment, Pristina52. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment,
Dakovica?. Mixed Artillery Regiment?. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment52.
Engineer Regiment, Krusevac?. Signal Bn?. Medical Bn?.
Transportation Bn?. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce Coy53.
Border Bn, Dakovica55. Border Bn, Prizren57. Border Bn,
5. Military District, Zagreb (former 5. Army), strength: 39.945 men
6. Proletarian Rifles Division, Karlovac (being disbanded)
202. Mixed Artillery Brigade, Slovenska Bistrica580. Mixed
Artillery Brigade, Karlovac – B?. NBC Defense Bn,
Zagreb-Borongaj367. Signal Regiment, Samobor308. Signal Regiment,
10. Special Forces Group, Dugo Selo*Special Forces Recce unit,
65. Protection Regiment, Dugo Selo
5. Military District EIV, Zagreb-Pleso (see above)
- could have been part of 65. Protection Regiment
Zagreb City Military Command*6. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment – R6.
Mixed Artillery Regiment – R6. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment
10. Corps, Zagreb
- was probably downgraded – in contrary to the City Command of
Belgrade – and subordinated to 10. Corps around 1988
Brigade, Jastrebarsko – A/B8. Proletarian Motorized Brigade,
Karlovac (formed around 1990 after 6. Proletarian Rifles Division
was disbanded) – R140. Mechanized Brigade, Zagreb/Dugo Selo* –
(planned: A)(140. Motorized Brigade, Zagreb)* – B(31. Mechanized
Brigade, Dugo Selo)* – R622. Motorized Brigade, Petrinja – R257.
Motorized Brigade, Petrinja (new formation created of 257. and 291.
Rifles Regiment and some other units around 1990) – R380. Motorized
Brigade, Karlovac33. Partisan Division, Dugo Selo – R4. Partisan
Brigade, Karlovac – R10. Recce Coy – R10. Military Police Bn – R10.
NBC Defense Coy – R10. Signal Bn – R10. Medical Bn – R60. Medical
Coy – R10. Transportation Coy – R10. Replacement Bn – R306. Light
Air Defense Artillery Regiment, Karlovac313. Light Air Defense
Artillery Regiment – R151. Anti-Tank Artillery Battery – R152.
Anti-Tank Artillery Battery – R167. Separate Anti-Tank Artillery
Group513. Engineer Brigade (new formation created of 10. and 258.
Engineer Regiment around 1990)123. Bridge Bn, Dugo Selo – A671.
Bridge Bn – R485. Bridge Bn, Karlovac17. Bridge Coy74. Bridge
Coy530. Logistics Base
13. Corps, Rijeka
- 140. Motorized and 31. Mechanized Brigade merged into 140.
Mechanized Brigade, year: 1990
Operational Group")13. Proletarian Motorized Brigade, Illirska
Bistrica – A/B6. Mountain Brigade, Delnice – B12. Mountain Brigade,
Bihac (existed in the mid 80's, could have been disbanded around
1990)236. Proletarian Motorized Brigade, Gospic (formed of 9. and
10. Rifles Regiment after 6. Proletarian Rifles Division was
disbanded around 1990) – R25. Motorized Brigade, Pazin (see also
Maritime Military District)8. Partisan Division (probably disbanded
around 1990)35. Partisan Division – R43. Partisan Division, Pazin –
R13. Recce Coy – R13. Military Police Bn – R13. NBC Defense Coy –
A13. Signal Bn, Rijeka – R13. Medical Bn – R13. Transportation Bn –
R13. Replacement Bn – R13. Light Air Defense Artillery Bn – R13.
Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment – R166. Separate Anti-Tank Artillery
Group, Bihac13. Mixed Artillery Regiment – R127. Engineer Regiment
– A540. Bridge Bn
14. Corps, Ljubljana
Proletarian Motorized Division") – peactime strength (1990): 13.900
men1. Armored Brigade, Vrhnika – A/B14. Proletarian Motorized
Brigade, Ljubljana-Sentvid – R228. Motorized Brigade, Postojna –
A253. Motorized Brigade, Ajdovscina345. Alpine Brigade, Kranj –
B15. Partisan Division, Novo Mesto – R-5. Partisan Brigade,
Ljubljana-14. Partisan Brigade, Novo Mesto-25. Partisan Brigade,
Ribnica30. Partisan Division, Vrhnika – R-13. Partisan Brigade,
Rakek-19. Partisan Brigade, Ajdovscina-20. Partisan Brigade,
Vrhnika1. Separate Partisan Brigade – R14. Mixed Artillery
Regiment, Ribnica14. Mixed Anti-Tank Regiment, Veliki Otok (near
Postojna)314. Anti-Tank Artillery Group168. Barrage/Fortress
Battery635. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment,
Ljubljana-Sentvid14. Engineer Regiment, Skofja Loka45. Bridge
Coy14. Signal Bn, Ljubljana298. Military Police Bn, Ljubljana14.
Medical Bn, Ljubljana14. Transportation Bn14. Replacement Bn61.
Border Bn, Radovljica62. Border Bn, Tolmin63. Border Bn, Nova
Gorica64. Border Bn, Sezana528. Logistics Base, Ljubljana
31. Corps, Maribor
Infantry Division") – peacetime strength (1990): 6300 men6.
Motorized Brigade, Celje145. Motorized Brigade, Novo Mesto195.
Motorized Rifles Brigade, Maribor – B325. Motorized Brigade29.
Partisan Division, Ptuj – R11. Separate Partisan Brigade, Slovenska
Bistrica – R31. Mixed Artillery Regiment, Maribor417. Mixed
Anti-Tank Regiment, Ptuj183. Anti-Tank Artillery Battery186.
Anti-Tank Artillery Battery31. Light Air Defense Artillery
Regiment, Ptuj522. Engineer Regiment, Celje270. Bridge Bn76. Bridge
Coy31. Military Police Bn, Maribor31. Signal Bn31. Medical Bn31.
Transportation Bn31. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce
Coy65. Border Bn, Murska Sobota66. Border Bn, Maribor67. Border Bn,
Dravograd699. Logistics Base, Celje
32. Corps, Varazdin
Mechanized Division")32. Mechanized Brigade, Varazdin – A265.
Mechanized Brigade, Bjelovar – A158. Mixed Anti-Tank Brigade,
Dakovo* – B288. Mixed Anti-Tank Brigade, Virovitica* – B411. Mixed
Anti-Tank Regiment, Krizevci – R73. Motorized Brigade, Koprivnica –
B28. Partisan Division, Bjelovar – R32. Partisan Division, Varazdin
– R32. Mixed Artillery Regiment, Varazdin?. Light Air Defense
Artillery Regiment32. Engineer Regiment, Cakovec32. Military Police
Bn, Varazdin32. Signal Bn, Varazdin32. Medical Bn, Varazdin32.
Transportation Bn32. Replacement Bn32. NBC Defense Coy, Varazdin?.
Recce Coy42. Border Bn, Virovitica43. Border Bn, Koprivnica
- could be direct reporting to the 5. Military District as some
Maritime Military District ("vojnopomorska oblast", VPO),
SplitOperations Center VPO, Zrnovnica108. Coastal Missile Brigade,
Radovici (P-20/SS-N-2C Styx)82. Naval Special Forces Unit
("pomorski centar"), Split-Divulje332. Signal Regiment, Sinj290.
Military Police Bn, Split
Maritime Military District EIV, Split-Divulje (see above)The Fleet
(HQ at Split)
9. Corps, Knin
Brigade, Knin – B180. Motorized Brigade, Benkovac11. Motorized
Rifles Brigade*62. Motorized Brigade, Benkovac**3. Brigade /
Croatian TO – R9. Mixed Artillery Regiment557. Mixed Anti-Tank
Regiment, Knin?. Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment594. Engineer
Regiment, Sinj9. Military Police Bn, Knin9. Signal Bn9. Medical
Bn9. Transportation Bn9. Replacement Bn?. NBC Defense Coy?. Recce
Coy405. Logistics Base, Knin
- could be former 11. Marine Rifles Brigade at Sibenik
- mentioned at the Hague war crimes tribunal, no other
REMARK: Several yugoslav sources list a 9. (Separate) Tank Bn for
9. Corps. I trusted them, but the information was incorrect for the
timeframe of this orbat, as I found out now. The 9. Bn together
with another Tank Bn (10.) was added to the Corps at the end of
1991. The troops came from 1. Military District to reinforce the 9.
Corps that was heavily involved in the first military actions of
JNA and irregular Serbian forces against Croatia. The example shows
how difficult it will be to get a correct JNA-orbat for the last
days of cold war and not to mix up facts with the first days of the
5. Maritime Sector Command, Pula139. (Guard) Marine Rifles Brigade,
Pula* (with at least one Bn at Mali Losinj, probably disbanded
around 1990)5. Motorized Rifles Brigade, Pula**
- designations vary from source to source, one source even names
- confusing cause there was definitely a 5. Proletarian Motorized
Brigade at the 2. Corps at Titograd
One Source says, 25. Motorized Brigade at Pazin (listed here with
13. Corps at Rijeka) was a merger of 139. Marine Rifles Brigade at
Pula with a Partisan Brigade (at Pazin and Umag) and was
subordinated to5. Maritime Sector
8. Maritime Sector Command, Sibenik12. Amphibious Brigade, Sibenik
(with detachment at Molat-Bonaster)*11. Marine Rifles Brigade,
Sibenik (probably disbanded around 1990)*
- Designations vary from source to source, one source even names
both. 11. Brigade at Sibenik and 139. Brigade at Pula definitely
existed both in the mid 80's and then eventually were reorganized
and got new designations.
9. Maritime Sector Command, Kumbor24. Motorized Rifles Brigade,
Trebinje107. Mixed Artillery Brigade, Radovici
Separate Naval Base Commands:VisLastovoLosinj
Other installations (Schools, Institutes etc.)
NBC-Laboratory, MostarTechnical Test Center,
Navy Installations:Naval Test Center, Split-LoraNaval
Hydrographical Institute, SplitShipbuilding Institute, ZagrebNaval
Medical Institute, Split
Modern militaries from territories of former Yugoslavia
- Trifunovska, Snezana, Yugoslavia Through Documents: From
Its Creation to Its Dissolution, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers,
1994 ISBN 0792326709