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Zeno of Sidonmarker was an Epicurean philosopher of the 1st century BC, who was born in the city of Sidonmarker in Phoeniciamarker. He was a contemporary of Cicero, who heard him when at Athensmarker.

He was sometimes termed the "leading Epicurean" ( ). Cicero states that Zeno was contemptuous of other philosophers, and even called Socrates "the Attic Buffoon." He was a disciple of Apollodorus, and Cicero and Diogenes Laƫrtius both describe him as an accurate and polished thinker.

Zeno held that happiness is not merely dependent upon present enjoyment and prosperity, but also on a reasonable expectation of their continuance and appreciation.

Zeno also studied the philosophy of mathematics based on the derivation of all knowledge from experience. He criticized Euclid, seeking to show that deductions from the fundamental principles ( ) of geometry cannot, on their own, be proved:

Among the charred papyrus remains at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneummarker, there is an Epitome of Conduct and Character, from the Lectures of Zeno written by Philodemus. It contains the essays On Frank Criticism and On Anger.


  1. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, i. 21.
  2. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iii. 17.
  3. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, i. 34.
  4. Diogenes Laƫrtius, x.
  5. PHerc. 1471
  6. PHerc. 182

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