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In Greek mythology, Zeus ( ) () is the King of the Gods, the ruler of Mount Olympusmarker and the god of the sky and thunder. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.

Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea, and the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he was married to Hera, although, at the oracle of Dodonamarker, his consort was Dione: according to the Iliad, he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione. He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo and Artemis, Hermes, Persephone (by Demeter), Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen, Minos, and the Muses (by Mnemosyne); by Hera, he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus.

In Greek, the god's name is Zeús (Modern Greek /'zefs/) in the nominative case and Diós in the genitive case. His Roman counterpart was Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart Tinia. In Hindu mythology his counterpart was Indra with ever common weapon as thunderbolt, which he could hold like a staff.

Cult of Zeus

Panhellenic cults of Zeus

The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympiamarker. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there.Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minormarker to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance.

[[Image:Statue of Zeus dsc02611-.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Colossal seated Marnas from Gazamarker portrayed in the style of Zeus.Marnas was the chief divinity of Gaza. Roman period Istanbul Archaeology Museummarker)]]

History

Zeus, poetically referred to by the vocative Zeu pater ("O, father Zeus"), is a continuation of * , the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, also called * ("Sky Father"). The god is known under this name in Sanskrit (cf. Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Latin (cf. Jupiter, from Iuppiter, deriving from the PIE vocative * ), deriving from the basic form *dyeu- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). And in Germanic and Norse mythology (cf. *Tīwaz > OHG Ziu, ON Týr), together with Latin deus, dīvus and Dis(a variation of dīves), from the related noun *deiwos. To the Greeks and Romans, the god of the sky was also the supreme god, whereas this function was filled out by Odin among the Germanic tribes. Accordingly, they did not identify Zeus/Jupiter with either Tyr or Odin, but with Thor ( ). Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology.

Role and epithets

Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.

Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity to doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:
  • Zeus Olympiosmarker emphasized Zeus's kingship over both the gods in addition to his specific presence at the Panhellenic festival at Olympiamarker.
  • A related title was Zeus Panhellenios ('Zeus of all the Hellenes'), to whom Aeacus' famous temple on Aeginamarker was dedicated.
  • As Zeus Xenios, Zeus was the patron of hospitality and guests, ready to avenge any wrong done to a stranger.
  • As Zeus Horkios, he was the keeper of oaths. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a statue to Zeus, often at the sanctuary of Olympia.
  • As Zeus Agoraeus, Zeus watched over business at the agora and punished dishonest traders.
  • As Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos he was the bearer of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the impious and his enemies. Others derive this epithet from ("goat") and and take it as an allusion to the legend of Zeus' suckling at the breast of Amalthea.
  • As Zeus Meilichios, "Easy-to-be-entreated", he subsumed an archaic chthonic daimon propitiated in Athens, Meilichios.
  • As Zeus Tallaios, or "Solar Zeus", he was worshiped in Cretemarker.


Some local Zeus-cults

In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetnamarker, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor. Other examples are listed below.

Cretan Zeus

With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed, and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort", whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos, the "boy-Zeus", often simply the Kouros.

In Cretemarker, Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossosmarker, Ida and Palaikastromarker. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Aghia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistosmarker show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees. On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage. Inscriptions at Gortynmarker and Lyttos record a Velchania festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete.

The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult, and hymned as ho megas kouros "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos]] by Sir Arthur Evans. With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia.

The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus, together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Cretemarker and that posthumously his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion with enthusiasm.

Zeus Lykaios in Arcadia

The epithet Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaionmarker ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadiamarker; Zeus had only a formal connection with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants. Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast. According to Plato (Republic 565d-e), a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolismarker; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.

Apollo, too had an archaic wolf-form, Apollo Lycaeus, worshipped in Athens at the Lykeion, or Lyceum, which was made memorable as the site where Aristotle walked and taught.

Subterranean Zeus

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"), Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars.

In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe Pausanias, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiaraus at Oropus outside of Thebesmarker, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon.

Oracles of Zeus

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.

The Oracle at Dodona

The cult of Zeus at Dodonamarker in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the Odyssey was composed (circa 750 BC), divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi, who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches (Odyssey 14.326-7). By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona, female priestesses called peleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests.

Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.

The Oracle at Siwa

The oracle of Ammon at the oasis of Siwamarker in the Western Desert of Egyptmarker did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Spartamarker, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War

After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose of a Libyan Sibyl.

Zeus and foreign gods

Zeus was equivalent to the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see interpretatio graeca) with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia. He (along with Dionysus) absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius.

Zeus in myth



Birth

Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father— an oracle that Zeus was to hear and avert. But when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.

Infancy

Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:
  1. He was then raised by Gaia.
  2. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry. (See cornucopia.)
  3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
  4. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars.
  5. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey.
  6. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.




Zeus becomes king of the gods

After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe. As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died. (See also: Penthus)

Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under a mountain, but left Echidna and her children alive.

Zeus and Hera

Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda. (For more details, see below).

Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by incessantly talking: when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.

Hera is also represented as having despised Ganymede, a Trojan boy whom he brought into Olympus to be cup-bearer to the gods as well as his lover.

Consorts and children

By divine mothers

Mother
Children
Aix Aegipan
Ananke* | # [[Moirae]] ([[Fates]])* ## [[Atropos]] ## [[Clotho]] ## [[Lachesis]] |- | [[Demeter]] | # [[Persephone]] # [[Zagreus]] |- | [[Dione (mythology)|Dione]] | #[[Aphrodite]] |- | [[Thalassa]] | [[Aphrodite]] |- | [[Gaia (mythology)|Gaia]]† | # [[Orion (mythology)|Orion]] # [[Manes father of Atys]] |- | [[Hera]] | # [[Ares]] # [[Eileithyia]] # [[Eris (mythology)|Eris]] # [[Hebe (mythology)|Hebe]] |- | [[Eos]] | #[[Ersa]] # Carae |- | [[Eris (mythology)|Eris]] | #[[Limos (mythology)|Limos]] (aka Limus) |- |- | [[Leto]] | # [[Apollo]] # [[Artemis]] |- | [[Maia (mythology)|Maia]] | # [[Hermes]] |- | [[Metis (mythology)|Metis]] | # [[Athena]] |- | [[Mnemosyne]] | # [[Muses]] (Original three) ## [[Aoide]] ## [[Melete]] ## [[Mneme]] # [[Muses]] (Later nine) ## [[Calliope]] ## [[Clio]] ## [[Erato]] ## [[Euterpe (mythology)|Euterpe]] ## [[Melpomene]] ## [[Polyhymnia]] ## [[Terpsichore]] ## [[Thalia]] ## [[Urania]] |- | [[Persephone]] | # [[Zagreus]] # [[Melinoe]] |- | [[Selene]] | # [[Ersa]] # [[Nemean Lion]] # [[Pandia]] |- | [[Themis]] | # [[Astraea (mythology)|Astraea]] # [[Nemesis (mythology)|Nemesis]] # [[Horae]] ## First Generation ### [[Auxo]] ### [[Carpo]] ### [[Thallo]] ## Second Generation ### [[Dike (goddess)|Dike]] ### [[Eirene (Greek goddess)|Eirene]] ### [[Eunomia (goddess)|Eunomia]] ## Third generation ### [[Pherusa]] ### [[Euporie]] ### [[Orthosie]] # [[Moirae]] ([[Fates]])* ## [[Atropos]] ## [[Clotho]] ## [[Lachesis]] |} {{ColBreak}} ====Mortal/nymph/other mother==== {| border="1" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; width:25%; height:200px" |- bgcolor="#CCCCCC" align="center" |
'''Mother''' ||
'''Children''' |- style="height:60px" |- | [[Aegina (mythology)|Aegina]] | [[Aeacus]] |- | [[Alcmene]] | [[Heracles]] ([[Hercules]]) |- | [[Antiope (mother of Amphion)|Antiope]] | # [[Amphion]] # [[Zethus]] |- | [[Callisto the Greek myth|Callisto]] | [[Arcas]] |- | [[Carme (mythology)|Carme]] | [[Britomartis]] |- | [[Danaë]] | [[Perseus (mythology)|Perseus]] |- | [[Elara (mythology)|Elara]] | # [[Tityas]] |- | [[Electra (Pleiad)|Electra]] | # [[Dardanus]] # [[Iasion]] |- | [[Europa (mythology)|Europa]] | # [[Minos]] # [[Rhadamanthys]] # [[Sarpedon]] |- | [[Eurynome]] | [[Charites]]([[Graces]]) # [[Aglaea]] # [[Euphrosyne (mythology)|Euphrosyne]] # [[Thalia]] |- | [[Himalia (mythology)|Himalia]] | # Kronios # Spartaios # Kytos |- | [[Iodame]] | [[Thebe (mythology)|Thebe]] |- | [[Io (mythology)|Io]] | # [[Epaphus]] # [[Keroessa]] |- |- |- | [[Lamia (mythology)|Lamia]] |- | [[Laodamia]] | [[Sarpedon]] |- | [[Leda (mythology)|Leda]] | # [[Castor and Polydeuces|Polydeuces]] ([[Pollux (mythology)|Pollux]]) # [[Castor and Polydeuces|Castor]] # [[Helen]] [[Sparta|of Sparta]] ([[Troy|of Troy]]) |- | [[Maera]] | [[Locrus]] |- | [[Niobe]] | # [[Argus]] # [[Pelasgus]] |- | [[Olympias]] | [[Alexander the Great|Alexander III]] [[Macedon|of Macedon]] |- | [[Othreis]] | [[Meliteus]] |- | [[Plouto]] | [[Tantalus]] |- | [[Podarge]] | # [[Balius]] # [[Xanthus]] |- | [[Pyrrha]] | [[Hellen]] |- | [[Semele]] | [[Dionysus]] |- | [[Taygete]] | [[Lacedaemon]] |- | [[Thalia]] | [[Palici]] |- | Unknown mother | [[Litae]] |- | Unknown mother | [[Tyche]] |- | Unknown mother | [[Ate]] |} {{EndMultiCol}} *The Greeks variously claimed that the Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness [[Themis]] or of primordial beings like [[Nyx (mythology)|Nyx]], [[Chaos (mythology)|Chaos]] or [[Ananke (mythology)|Anake]]. † He is described as being "Earth-born" and was gestated buried beneath the ground; this is Gaia's domain, though she had no direct involvement in his birth or development. Other versions of his parentage include a version of the former excluding Poseidon and one with solely Poseidon and Euryale as his parents.

Zeus miscellany

  • Zeus turned Pandareus to stone for stealing the golden dog which had guarded him as an infant in the holy Dictaeon Cave of Cretemarker.
  • Zeus killed Salmoneus with a thunderbolt for attempting to impersonate him, riding around in a bronze chariot and loudly imitating thunder.
  • Zeus turned Periphas into an eagle after his death, as a reward for being righteous and just.
  • At the marriage of Zeus and Hera, a nymph named Chelone refused to attend. Zeus transformed her into a tortoise (chelone in Greek).
  • Zeus, with Hera, turned King Haemus and Queen Rhodope into mountains (the Balkan mountainsmarker, or Stara Planina, and Rhodope mountains, respectively) for their vanity.
  • Zeus condemned Tantalus to eternal torture in Tartarus for trying to trick the gods into eating the flesh of his butchered son.
  • Zeus condemned Ixion to be tied to a fiery wheel for eternity as punishment for attempting to violate Hera.
  • Zeus sunk the Telchines beneath the sea for blighting the earth with their fell magics.
  • Zeus blinded the seer Phineus and sent the Harpies to plague him as punishment for revealing the secrets of the gods.
  • Zeus rewarded Tiresias with a life three times the norm as reward for ruling in his favour when he and Hera contested which of the sexes gained the most pleasure from the act of love.
  • Zeus punished Hera by having her hung upside down from the sky when she attempted to drown Heracles in a storm.
  • Of all the children Zeus spawned, Heracles was often described as his favorite. Indeed, Heracles was often called by various gods and people as "the favorite son of Zeus", Zeus and Heracles were very close and in one story, where a tribe of earth-born Giants threatened Olympus and the Oracle at Delphi decreed that only the combined efforts of a lone god and mortal could stop the creature, Zeus chose Heracles to fight by his side. They proceeded to defeat the monsters.
  • Athena has at times been called his favorite daughter and adviser.
  • His sacred bird was the golden eagle, which he kept by his side at all times. Like him, the eagle was a symbol of strength, courage, and justice.
  • His favourite tree was the oak, symbol of strength. Olive trees were also sacred to him.
  • Zelus, Nike, Cratos and Bia were Zeus' retinue.
  • Zeus condemned Prometheus to having his liver eaten by a giant eagle for giving the Flames of Olympus to the mortals.


In philosophy

In Neoplatonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.

Other names/epithets

  • Zeus Hospites- as a protector of guests
  • Zeus Philoxenon- as a protector of foreigners
  • Olumpios- the Olympian
  • Astrapios- literally, "the lightninger"
  • Brontios- the Thunderer
  • Meilichios - his chthonic aspect
  • Kasios - the Zeus of Mount Kasiosmarker in Syria.


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

See also



References

  • Burkert, Walter, (1977) 1985. Greek Religion, especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press)
  • Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964.
    • Volume 1: Zeus, God of the Bright Sky, Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint)
    • Volume 2: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (Thunder and Lightning), Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0156-X
    • Volume 3: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites)
  • Druon, Maurice, The Memoirs of Zeus, 1964, Charles Scribner's and Sons. (tr. Humphrey Hare)
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, Cults of the Greek States 5 vols. Oxford; Clarendon 1896–1909. Still the standard reference.
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, 1921.
  • Graves, Robert; The Greek Myths, Penguin Books Ltd. (1960 edition)
  • Mitford,William, The History of Greece, 1784. Cf. v.1, Chapter II, Religion of the Early Greeks
  • Moore, Clifford H., The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916.
  • Nilsson, Martin P., Greek Popular Religion, 1940.
  • Nilsson, Martin P., History of Greek Religion, 1949.
  • Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks, 1925.
  • Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, [6058], William Smith, Dictionary: "Zeus" [6059]


Footnotes


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